Surely there is no garden plot on the territory of which at least one raspberry bush did not grow. Since the middle of the 16th century, mankind has known the healing properties of a plant called common raspberry.
- Raspberries. Variety of species
- Raspberry care
- Productivity of a raspberry bush
Raspberries. Variety of species
It was from this point that raspberries began their march as a cultivated plant. And exactly one hundred years later, white raspberries, or yellow-fruited raspberries, appeared. The color of the fruit is due to the very low content of anthocyanin, a strong allergen that is saturated with red berries.
Black raspberries are also widespread in our latitudes. Outwardly, it is very similar to a blackberry. Its essential difference from blackberries lies not only in different tastes, but also in how they are removed from the branch. The fruit of the black raspberry is separated from the white fruit bed and has a smaller drupe. The berry contains a large amount of anthocyanins and antioxidants, due to which it has an antimicrobial effect.
Differences between black raspberry and red and yellow-fruited varieties:
- resistance to arid climate;
- simultaneous ripening of all berries on the bush;
- lack of basal processes;
- propagation using seeds, cuttings and apical layers.
Over the past 50 years, the remontant raspberry, which bears fruit twice a year, has gained particular popularity in the ranks of gardeners over the past 50 years. Its second harvest falls in mid-August.
Planting and pruning a raspberry bush
The main reproduction of raspberry bushes occurs at the expense of the root system. They grow well over the season and give many shoots. Biennial shoots. They do not bear fruit in the first year. Lignification and fruiting occurs in the second year, after which the shoot dies off. In its place, new shoots grow from the root.
Based on this, raspberry bushes are planted in rows. The row spacing must be at least 1.8 meters. The distance between bushes in a row is at least 0.7 meters. The annual number of replaced shoots of one bush is about 10, and the same number of young shoots. Thin and damaged stems are cut, leaving no more than 7 strong shoots. If you do not remove the shoots and leave a larger number of shoots, the yield will noticeably decrease, as the berries will lose in size and quality. In early spring, the stem is cut at a height of 150-160 cm. This is done because the most productive part of the raspberry shoot is the middle one, not higher than 170 cm. It is in this part that the largest berry is formed.
Top dressing of garden raspberries
Every year in the middle of autumn, organic feeding is made at the rate of 2-3 buckets of peat or humus on a raspberry bush with the addition of 100 grams of urea or saltpeter.
If there is a weak growth of shoots, in late May - early April it is necessary to pour a bucket of organic "talker" under each bush, at the rate of 1 shovel of cow dung and 5 grams (matchbox) of nitrate or urea per 1 bucket of water.
Loosening the soil under and around bushes
The root system of the raspberry bush is superficial. Loosening of the soil around the bushes and under them is carried out after fertilization. Loosening depth 8-10 cm. Raspberry roots can grow over long distances. In order for the raspberry not to "migrate", you can fence off the place reserved for it. A sheet of tin or galvanized iron 15-20 cm wide is dug in along the perimeter for its entire width. Such a barrier will not allow the roots to "leave their homes."
Raspberries do not need spring-summer watering. Only in case of summer drought. The main watering occurs in the autumn, when the growth points of the shoots are laid in the root system. Raspberry bushes are well filled with water. After that, some varieties are laid on the ground and insulated in anticipation of the winter cold.
In pest control, the main emphasis is on the quality of the planting material. Raspberries are highly susceptible to various viral and fungal diseases. A timely, thorough treatment with insecticides will help protect the bushes from pest damage. The most important thing in processing is observing the time and number of sprays during the growing season.
Productivity of a raspberry bush
raspberry plantation depends entirely on the quality of plant care. A small bush of common garden raspberries is capable of producing up to 4 kg of berries per season.
The yield of large-fruited and remontant varieties is much higher, since they give two harvests per season. In some cases, the figure reaches 9 kg of berries from a bush. Advantages of remontant raspberries over ordinary garden raspberries:
- Two crops per season instead of one.
- Erect shoots that do not need bending for the winter.
- The shoot height does not exceed 160 cm and does not need tying.
- The bushes are cleaned in the autumn. Together with dead shoots, a significant part of the infection and pests is removed.
- Repaired raspberries are resistant to diseases and pests, since their phenophase of development does not coincide with the phenophase of insect development.
Thanks to item 5, there is no need to spray the remontant raspberry bushes with chemical agents, and you get an environmentally friendly berry that is not treated with pesticides and is not affected by various plant diseases.