The hazel tree of the hazel family consists of 22 species. A wild plant of this genus is called hazel, hazelnuts are cultivated varieties of hazel, which is a hybrid of common hazel, large and Pontic.
Since ancient times, it was believed that hazel (hazelnuts) has magical properties. She was a talisman, part of fortune-telling, helped a lost traveler and saved him from hunger in lean years.
This nut appeared in the Caucasus, in Asia Minor, and from there spread to the southeast and north of Europe. The dimensions of hazelnuts are 3-4 times larger than those of hazel, the taste and content of nutrients are also greater.
Hazelnuts can be planted on medium to heavy loamy soils, where there is enough moisture, but not an excess of it. Bushes give shoots from the roots, from which the plant can be propagated. It takes root well and begins to bear fruit for 3-4 years.
To increase yields, in the spring, dry ammonium nitrate or ammonium sulfate can be added under the bushes at the rate of 2 kg per plant. Fertilizer is embedded in the soil and mulched.
Hazelnut (hazelnuts) grows up to 200 years, but its productivity decreases after 10-12 years, so old shrubs are removed. For better lighting, leave 6-8 fruit-bearing trunks and the same number of young ones on the plant. Hazelnuts do not tolerate strong darkening, so it is not recommended to plant it under dense trees.
An early harvest is not intended for storage, although it looks quite normal in appearance and taste. In such a nut, the kernels dry out quickly. Overexposed nuts crumble, which also leads to a loss in yield. The most optimal time for harvesting is when the plyusa (nut wrapper) begins to change color. Most varieties of hazelnuts ripen in August.