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Apple tree care in autumn and winter, how to prepare trees, protect from frost


Novice summer residents believe that you can get a harvest of fruit by taking care of the garden only in spring and summer. But experienced gardeners say that only proper care of the apple tree in autumn and winter will ensure the health and long-term fruiting of the tree. Let's consider the most important questions and study the answers to them from professionals.

Content:

  • Does it make sense to care for apple trees in the fall?
  • When should you start preparing for winter?
  • Should you prune mature and young trees in the fall?
  • Is it necessary to remove fallen leaves?
  • How to properly care for the trunk circle in the fall? Do I need to dig up and mulch the soil?
  • What preparations can be used for autumn pest control, in what time frame?
  • What measures can you take to prevent rodent damage?
  • Do you need autumn feeding? If so, what are the terms of its implementation, what fertilizers can be used?
  • In what case is it necessary to use water-charging irrigation, when to produce it, how much water to apply?
  • If lichens or mosses appear on the trunk and branches - what to do?
  • Do I need to whitewash tree trunks for the winter?
  • Is there a difference in caring for old and young apple trees?
  • How to insulate an apple tree for the winter?
  • What are the features of warming a columnar apple tree

Does it make sense to care for apple trees in the fall?

Winter is a time when fruit trees can be seriously affected by harsh weather conditions. The gardener's task is to create the most favorable conditions for the wintering of perennial plants, to protect them from the effects of severe frosts and winds.

  • Caring for an apple tree in autumn and winter, provided that all procedures are carried out correctly, will allow: to provide plants with moisture and nutrients;
  • protect its trunk from damage by rodents and frostbite;
  • prevent branches from breaking off under the weight of adhered snow.

In December-February, it is advisable to periodically visit the garden, when a large amount of snow sticks on the branches, it must be shaken off and tamped in the near-trunk circle, when it melts, it will provide high-quality soil moisture.

It is imperative to remove broken branches, but for winter pruning, you should choose relatively warm days when there is no severe frost.

When should you start preparing for winter?

The preparation of apple trees begins after the end of the leaf fall. It is advisable to wait for dry weather.

It should be borne in mind that this period in the same climatic zone occurs every year at different times, what can we say about different climatic zones: when in November it still rains in the Pskov region, it is already dry in the Moscow region, and the first snow falls in the Urals.

It turns out that the time for preparing apple trees for wintering is September-November. The work must be planned so that it is completed before frost and snow fall.

Let's watch an interesting video on how to care for apple trees in autumn and winter, the sequence of procedures:

Should you prune mature and young trees in the fall?

In the autumn, you can carry out sanitary pruning of apple trees. It is carried out before frosts are established, but at the end of the leaf fall. If we talk about different climatic zones, then in Siberia it will be the end of September, in the Central zone - the first half of October, in the southern regions - at the beginning of November.

Pruning can only be done in dry weather.

It is not recommended to cut trees heavily in the fall; this will weaken them and reduce winter hardiness. When sanitizing, branches can be removed:

  • dry and damaged;
  • directed to the center of the crown;
  • affected by pests and diseases.

The cut is made with clean sharp garden tools, strictly on the ring. Places of cuts are treated with garden varnish or a solution of copper sulfate.

Is it necessary to remove fallen leaves?

A mandatory procedure is putting things in order in the garden at the end of the leaf fall. In the near-stem circle, you should carefully remove all fallen leaves, grass, carrion, broken off twigs. In addition, all remaining leaves and fruits should be removed from the branches.

The collected plant residues are burned, they pose a potential hazard, because can be a wintering place for pest larvae and a possible source of the spread of infectious diseases.

The near-trunk circle of fruit trees is dug to a depth of 15-20 cm, this will destroy the wintering sites of pests, with the onset of frost they will die.

How to properly care for the trunk circle in the fall? Do I need to dig up and mulch the soil?

We have already mentioned that it is necessary to dig up the ground and why this is done in the answer to the previous question. Now let's talk about the benefits of soil mulching. Humus, compost or black peat are used as mulch for the winter, it is crumbly and has low acidity.

The thickness of the mulch layer should be at least 3-5 cm. You will not need to remove it with the onset of spring, mulch will serve as a good organic fertilizer.

What preparations can be used for autumn pest control, in what time frame?

If the summer passed safely and there was no particular spread of infectious lesions, then you can do without treating the trees with potent chemicals. Choose a dry, warm day for work. To protect the apple trees from scab, it will be enough to spray them with a urea solution: carefully dissolve 400 g of the drug in 10 liters of water.

You can also use a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate.

Preventive treatment will eliminate the causative agents of fungal infections and other diseases of apple trees, as well as egg-laying and larvae of insect pests.

Trees are treated from bottom to top, the trunk and branches should be well moistened with a solution. On old trees, you should first remove the remnants of flaking bark.

Birds can be attracted to the destruction of pests. In the garden, you need to hang out feeders, they are false to be open, but have a roof. The best food for birds in winter is cereal grains and raw sunflower seeds. Titmice can be attracted with raw bacon suspended from branches. Attracted in winter, birds will collect beetles and caterpillars in your garden all summer long.

What measures can you take to prevent rodent damage?

Damage to the bark by rodents in the conditions of the Middle Lane occurs quite often, the main pests in the winter garden are hares and mice. There are times when rodents damage the bark around the entire trunk, in which case only the rootstock will remain alive, the above-ground part of the tree will die.

Really effective protection measures that will help preserve trees are:

  • installation of a high fence around the entire site;
  • wrapping the trunk with a plastic net to a height of at least 1 m, at least 2 cm of the net should be deepened into the ground.

Let's watch a video about that. how to protect apple trees for the winter from rodents and pests:

Do you need autumn feeding? If so, what are the terms of its implementation, what fertilizers can be used?

Top dressing of apple trees in the fall is necessary. Fertilizers can be applied simultaneously with watering or after it. Fertilizers can only be used with potash and phosphate fertilizers.

It should be noted that dissolved fertilizers are absorbed by the roots much faster and more actively. Therefore, to optimize the process, dissolve 2 tablespoons of phosphorus fertilizer (superphosphate is possible) and 1 tablespoon of potash in a 10 liter bucket. A thoroughly mixed solution is added to 0.5 sq.m. near the trunk circle of an adult tree.

Fertilizers containing nitrogen are not applied in autumn, they will stimulate the development of young shoots, with the onset of frost they will definitely die.

In what case is it necessary to use water-charging irrigation, when to produce it, how much water to apply?

Autumn water-charging irrigation will be needed if there was little rainfall in the fall. It should be borne in mind that even heavy rain that has passed after a long drought will moisten the soil by a few centimeters, this is not enough for large plants. For safe wintering, it is required that the soil is moistened by at least 1 m, and not only around the trunk, but also along the boundaries of the crown outline.

Watering is carried out before frosts begin. To prevent water spreading, watering is carried out after digging up the soil in the near-trunk circle.

It is not difficult to determine the amount of water for water-charging irrigation, its volumes depend on the age of the tree:

  • from a year to five, 50 liters will be required;
  • from 6 to 10 years old - about 100 liters;
  • apple trees over 15 years old - at least 150 liters.

Moistened soil will allow the roots to be saturated with liquid, the increased soil moisture will prevent the soil from freezing.

If lichens or mosses appear on the trunk and branches - what to do?

If lichens and mosses appear on the old apple tree, you will need to remove them. First, trapping belts are removed from the trunk and burned outside the garden. Then a plastic wrap is laid out under the tree, and with the help of a plastic scraper, peeling bark, moss, lichen, in which pests usually hibernate, are carefully removed.

The work should be done very carefully to avoid damage to the wood tissue. It is much easier to do this job after the rain has passed and the trunk is wet. But you can deliberately pour water over the tree, the wet bark is separated much easier.

In case of damage to the living bark, the wounds should be treated with brilliant green or hydrogen peroxide, then covered with garden pitch.

Do I need to whitewash tree trunks for the winter?

If before whitening apple trees for the winter was considered an extremely useful procedure, recently there have been disputes about which materials can be used to treat tree trunks. Indeed, the white-colored bark is protected from sunburn caused by direct sunlight and rays reflected from the surface of the snow crust, and hence from sudden temperature changes that lead to cracking of the bark.

For whitewashing, you should choose a sunny, dry day, the best time is late autumn, before the onset of frost and snowfall. Apply paint or lime to the trunk to the level where the branching of the skeletal branches begins.

Only slaked lime should be used for whitewashing, it is even better to use a special garden paint. It is not recommended to use ordinary acrylic paint, it covers the plant with an airtight layer. It is also dangerous to use mixtures containing glue.

Whitewashing is applied from the bottom up, carefully painting over the defects on the bark.

Is there a difference in caring for old and young apple trees?

Although the care of young and old trees involves the same procedures, some features should be noted:

  • for autumn watering of a one-year-old seedling, it is enough to add 20-30 liters of water to the trunk circle;
  • pruning of young seedlings is not carried out in the fall, it is only permissible to remove broken shoots, treat the cuts with garden paint;
  • for preventive treatment, you can use Bordeaux liquid;
  • as a fertilizer, a solution containing 10 g of superphosphate and 15 g of potassium sulfate is introduced into the soil; instead of such a mixture, 300-400 g of wood ash can be added under the trees.

In practice, the benefits of shoveling an earthen mound with a height of 30-40 cm around young trees have been proven. The snow cover acts as an additional shelter, i.e. after a snowfall, it is advisable to create a snow slide in the near-trunk circle.

How to insulate an apple tree for the winter?

In the conditions of the Middle Lane, only young trees, especially those planted in the current year, require insulation. Natural burlap can be used as a covering material. The barrel is wrapped after whitewashing and installing a protective mesh. The trunk is wrapped up to the base of the skeletal branches.

Some gardeners successfully practice warming with old newspapers, they wrap the trunk with them, and use scotch tape to fix the paper. A good protection for seedlings is fir spruce branches, reeds, you can also use roofing material.

The near-trunk area can be covered with several layers of burlap or matting. You can cover it with a 2-4 cm layer of humus. It is a good insulation material that will serve as an organic fertilizer in the spring.

If you use sawdust, then their layer should be up to 20 cm. After the snow melts, the sawdust should be removed, because they will interfere with the heating of the soil.

For insulation and protection from sunlight and rodents, breathable fabrics, including a spanboard, can be used. The material is attached to the trunk with twine or tape. The bottom edge of the fabric should remain on the surface of the ground, it will need to be covered with earth. In this case, the trees need not be whitened for the winter.

Features of warming a columnar apple tree

Columnar apple trees are distinguished not only by their high yield, but also by their structure. Their height does not exceed 2.5 m, they do not have long branches extending from the trunk.

Such trees must be completely covered. The best option is to build a pyramidal structure made of planks around the trunks. The inside is covered with humus, the rack pyramid is wrapped in tarpaulin or polyethylene. In such a shelter, apple trees can withstand severe frosts and winds.

Proper care of an apple tree in autumn and winter is the key to getting a rich harvest in summer; you should not neglect the recommendations of experienced gardeners.


Watch the video: EZ Preparing Fruit Trees Young or Old For Winter (December 2021).