Raspberries are a delicacy for adults and children, so no one misses the opportunity to plant this shrub in their garden.
We propose to consider the most productive and frequently used methods of breeding raspberries, we provide step-by-step instructions for carrying out these manipulations.
- Raspberry breeding methods
- Digging in
- Nettle method
- Lignified cuttings
- Scottish way
- Seed use
- Accelerated plant breeding
- How the berry reproduces in nature
- Recommendations for breeding yellow raspberries
Raspberry breeding methods
Experts do not distinguish a specific type of raspberry breeding, since each method has both advantages and disadvantages. The reproduction process is influenced by many factors: the raspberry variety, weather conditions, the selection of planting material, the place of planting, the age of the plant.
As for the last factor, it is worth using a two-year-old shrub for breeding raspberries.
The most effective breeding methods are as follows:
- by dropping;
- dividing the bush;
- root shoots.
Seed propagation is rarely carried out and with only one purpose, to develop a new variety. The most popular method is cuttings or root shoots.
There is one specificity - when the central and main part of the bush is removed during pruning, many young shoots will grow on the preserved branches. Such pruning is carried out in order to quickly multiply the culture, the harvest this year will not be possible, but to collect enough planting material just right.
This manipulation is carried out in early March. Overwintered and annual shoots are used for dropping.
Scheme of the procedure:
- A suitable shoot is chosen, it must be healthy and flexible. Make measurements and marks on the ground, where the digging will subsequently be carried out.
- Dig up the soil in the marked area and mix it with sand and peat.
- Make a recess for the escape, the optimal depth is from ten to fifteen centimeters. Fill the groove with water and wait until it is absorbed into the soil.
- The selected branch is bent to the ground, all side leaves and branches are trimmed with garden shears. It is necessary to leave only those shoots that grow upward.
- The stem is scratched on the remaining branches near the base. For this, neat longitudinal and oblique cuts are made, no more than two millimeters deep. It is advisable to treat the incisions with Kornevin.
- The shoot is laid in the hole, it is pinned with wire brackets and covered with earth from above. The crown should be left outside, about twenty centimeters long. The top is placed vertically and tied to a rod or peg.
- Watering and mulching are carried out.
If the manipulation is performed in accordance with the requirements, then the seedling can be separated from the mother bush in the fall. Some carry out this procedure in the summer, using green shoots, then the seedling will be ready for next fall.
When choosing this technique, a young plant is used, the stem of which appeared in early spring. The method is called nettle, since the stem is very similar to nettle.
The height of young shoots is no more than 10 cm, however, two fully developed leaves should be present.
The plan of action is as follows:
- Remove the soil near the young stalk and cut off the process to the very base. The shoot height will be from 3 to 5 cm.
- The incision must be disinfected with stimulants: Epin, Heteroauxin or Kornevin.
- Specially prepare a peat substrate with the addition of sand in a one-to-one ratio, or on the basis of sand, turf and peat (in this case, sand is put in half the size of the rest). The soil is moistened.
- We plant the plant in the substrate so deeply that the white part and one centimeter of green are hidden in the ground.
- To create the effect of a greenhouse, the sprout is covered with half a plastic bottle, half a liter jar or film. On a large scale, greenhouses are used for such manipulations, where there is a special fogging installation.
It should be understood that the sprout has no roots and is not able to receive nutrients from the soil, therefore it is necessary that the condensate falls on the leaves and feeds the stem.
Let's watch a video about the reproduction of raspberries by the nett method:
To carry out this method, it is worth choosing areas that are protected from the sun, for example, not far from the fence, under shrubs and trees. Installed greenhouses in direct sun burn shoots. The optimum temperature is considered from plus twenty to plus twenty-six degrees.
Within 30 days, the sprouts will take root, leaves will grow on the stem.
Harvesting is carried out in the autumn, from mid-October to mid-November. Fruited branches are used, by the specified time they will be covered with a hard bark.
Shoots are cut into identical cuttings. Be sure to remove all the leaves. The buds have already formed on the cuttings, since the growing season is over, and it is from the buds that new leaves should appear in early spring.
Manipulation can be done in several ways:
- In autumn, the trimmings are neatly tied together and placed in a container with sand and damp shavings. If several varieties are used at the same time, then they are divided into bunches and signed. In the spring, planting is carried out on the garden plot.
- Rough cuttings are wrapped in plastic wrap or damp cloth. In both cases, it is important to make small holes for ventilation. Lower the planting material into the cellar or put in the refrigerator. The temperature regime and humidity are important: the temperature should be at least minus two, maximum plus 2 degrees, and the humidity should be from 65 to 70%. In the first month of spring, cuttings are planted on a windowsill, in a greenhouse or in a greenhouse using the nettles method.
- The third method involves cutting cuttings, but harvesting them for the winter period is not carried out. The prepared material is immediately planted in open ground, the cuttings are deepened so that the crown sticks out of the ground, on which there are two buds. Cuttings must be covered for the winter with agrofibre, reeds or spruce branches. You can use other raw materials, the main thing is that the air passes through. The film is not suitable in this case.
You can use one of these methods, or experiment with all of them at once.
The Scottish method of breeding raspberries is the most effective and productive, as it is possible to get many healthy, productive seedlings in a short period of time.
The procedure is carried out in this way:
- In early spring, sawdust, humus and peat are poured on the ground around the shrub, all components are taken in the same proportions. The resulting mixture promotes the rapid formation of buds on the raspberry bush and its rhizome.
- In the fall, the roots are cut into cuttings. They are formed into small bunches, wrapped in a cloth, placed in a container with wet sand and left in the basement until spring.
- The following spring, in March, the cuttings are taken from the basement and planted in flowerpots with sand and peat. The sprouts need abundant watering. After 14 days, green shoots should hatch.
- The sprouts are transplanted again, for this they now use soil with the addition of 1 part of sand, 1 part of peat, three parts of turf, superphosphate (5 grams per 100 grams of soil) and 50 grams of dolomite flour.
After 30 days, raspberry seedlings can be transplanted to an open area, the harvest will appear in a few years.
Reproduction of raspberries by seeds is a very troublesome and complicated matter, it is worth choosing this reproduction technique if there is a need to develop a new variety.
There are many nuances for the whole procedure to be successful:
- Use ripe berries to get the seeds.
- The product is ground to form juice.
- Water is poured into the contents, mixed thoroughly, and everything that has surfaced is drained. This manipulation is carried out many times until the water becomes transparent and the seeds can be seen.
- Everything is filtered through a sieve and seeds are obtained, which are used for propagation of the culture.
- The material is spread on a cotton cloth or dry paper so that the seeds dry well.
- The seeds can be used immediately for planting, or placed in a paper or plastic bag and stored in the refrigerator.
- The next step is to carry out stratification, as the seed emerges slowly. The seeds are put in water for a day, then mixed with wet sand, and put in nylon bags. Capron is covered with steamed sawdust or moss, lightly watered and placed in a refrigerator or basement for 3 months.
- After a specified period, seeds are planted simultaneously with the sand in a small box, where moist soil should be poured no more than five millimeters thick. Sifted peat is scattered on top with a thin layer, the container is closed with glass and the box is placed in a bright, warm place, where there are no direct sunlight and drafts.
- When the sprouts stretch up to 10 cm, a pick is carried out in cups. When warm weather stabilizes outside, seedlings can be planted on open soil, picking up an area without wind and sun.
After a few years, healthy seedlings grow, they can be left for further growth, or transplanted to another site.
Accelerated plant breeding
Accelerated reproduction is considered the Scottish method, green cuttings and propagation of seedlings in the field. Let's consider the last option in more detail.
A trench is dug in the field, from 30 to 50 cm deep, organic substances are added as fertilizer. The roots are laid out along the length of the entire trench and watered.
If the procedure is performed in the fall, it is necessary to protect the seedlings from frost; for this, hilling is carried out.
As a result, using a kilogram of roots, up to one hundred healthy seedlings are obtained. The following fall, they are dug out with gentle movements to preserve the rhizome, and planted in a permanent area. Fertilizers are applied to the soil, and the next year, in the spring, in addition to one seedling, up to 8 new ones will appear.
How the berry reproduces in nature
In nature, it reproduces by seeds and vegetatively.
In the second case, reproduction occurs independently. The berry grows in one place for a long time, and thanks to the roots, it is constantly renewed. Ultimately, the old roots disappear and the new ones take root in the new area, and this encourages abundant growth.
Recommendations for breeding yellow raspberries
For this culture, root suckers are chosen as propagation. Strong shoots are dug out at the end of autumn with an earthen clod and transferred to another place. The transplant site is fertilized with humus and watered.
The method of propagation of yellow raspberries by cuttings is also effective. The material is harvested in advance, in spring or autumn, and then stored in the basement, covered with nutritious soil. When roots appear on the handle, planting is carried out in separate containers. When leaves bloom on the shoots, the seedlings are transplanted into the garden.
It is not recommended to reproduce with seeds. It is easier to buy new seedlings or carry out the above propagation methods.
So, raspberries multiply in many ways, all of them, if the recommendations are followed, give a positive result. When choosing a method, it is important to consider the variety and the skills of the owner.
Let's watch a video about cultivating raspberries with roots: