Unstable weather in spring, night frosts in northern and central Russia make it impossible to grow tomatoes by direct sowing into the ground. Therefore, the seedling method is more often used.
Considering the question of when to sow tomatoes for seedlings in 2020, one should take into account the peculiarities of the local climate.
Varieties should be selected zoned. In the event that spring frosts last for a long time in your area, it is best to abandon the option of direct sowing of tomatoes into the ground, the best option would be to plant tomatoes with seedlings.
- When to sow tomatoes for seedlings in 2020, auspicious days
- Recommended sowing dates for Bulgarian salad and hot pepper
- When to sow eggplants for seedlings
- How to determine the sowing time depending on the region
- Is it necessary to process the seeds before planting, what products can be used
- The best soil for growing seedlings
- What containers can be used
- What conditions need to be created to get friendly seedlings
When to sow tomatoes for seedlings in 2020, auspicious days
The best time for sowing is the first days on the growing moon, we indicate them in table 1.
|February||6, 7, 24, 25, 28, 29|
|March||3 – 6, 10 – 12, 15 – 20, 27 – 30|
|April||1, 2, 5 – 7, 9 — 14, 18, 19, 23, 25, 26, 28, 29|
Residents of the Moscow region, central Russia, when choosing the optimal time, should take into account both the lunar calendar and:
- features of the tomato variety;
- the length of the growing season;
- growing method, where the bushes will be transplanted: in a greenhouse or open ground.
Late-ripening varieties are planted in the last days of February. Mid-ripening - March 1-15, early-ripening - March 15-31. Hybrids - early April.
Warm weather in Moscow and the region usually settles closer to mid-May. If you sow seeds in the first half of March, then the grown seedlings can be transplanted into open ground from May 15.
If sown in the last days of February - early March, then after 60 days (May 4-5) it will be possible to transplant the undersized seedlings into a shelter (greenhouse).
For transplanting seedlings into a polycarbonate greenhouse, sowing can be started in the first decade of April or transferred to March (after 2 weeks) if there is heating in the greenhouse.
If you plant seedlings on time, then by this time the age of the seedlings will be 55-60 days. They will already be ready to be transplanted into a permanent place for active growth.
Reference! You cannot sow tomato seeds on a new moon when the root system is not protected from damage.
Sowing on a waning moon can provoke an accumulation of sap at the bottom of the root system. The best period is for the growing moon. So, up to 11 days in a row, when you can sow or transplant determinant varieties of tomatoes.
Tomato seeds take an average of 65 days to ripen. If the variety is early, then 45 days. If late - 80 days. This is important to know in order to calculate the optimal planting period.
It is also worth adhering to the favorable numbers according to the lunar calendar for 2020 - in order to obtain healthy seedlings.
Let's watch a video on when to sow tomatoes for seedlings in 2020:
Recommended sowing dates for Bulgarian salad and hot pepper
When choosing the optimal time before planting pepper, 3 main factors need to be taken into account:
- Moon calendar.
- Climatic features of the region.
- The specifics of the development of culture.
To obtain high-quality seedlings, it is equally important to create good lighting, temperature (+20 +26 degrees).
Favorable days according to the lunar calendar for sowing pepper seedlings for 2020, we indicate them in table 2.
|February||1,2, 8-12, 15, 24|
|March||3,4, 10 – 14, 17, 26|
|April||2 – 4, 9, 13, 16, 25|
|May||7 — 10, 14, 15|
|June||4, 5, 12 – 14, 18.|
It is recommended to refuse sowing seeds on a full moon due to a slowdown in vegetative growth on the following days in months, we indicate them in table 3.
|Month||Unfavorable days for sowing|
|February||3, 4, 20|
|May||20, 29, 30|
When to sow eggplants for seedlings
Heat-loving culture - eggplant grows well only in good lighting, steadily warm weather. Spring comes to the Moscow region in the last days of March.
But the threat of frost remains until May 20. If the seedlings are kept at a low temperature of +16 C, they will begin to lag behind in growth, stretch out, and get sick.
In June, prolonged rains can negatively affect, therefore, the preferred time for planting seeds is the last days of February and until March 15, taking into account the fact that the seedling planting time is 55 days.
For St. Petersburg and the region, it is recommended to move the sowing period by 1-2 weeks, starting from the first days of March. So it will be possible to plant eggplants in open ground in early June.
It is more difficult for residents of the Primorsky Territory, the Far East, Siberia, their calculations are hampered by the difficult climate. To obtain a good harvest, capricious eggplant seedlings are grown extremely carefully, with the obligatory supplementary lighting with fluorescent lamps.
The most favorable climate for growing eggplants is in the southern regions of the country, where it gets warm early, the soil warms up quickly.
Seeds are planted for seedlings in early February. They are transplanted into the ground in early May.
Attention! In a greenhouse, the ground warms up faster by 1-3 weeks than in the open field. Taking this feature into account, in order to transplant seedlings into a greenhouse, seeds can be sown much earlier.
It is very important to calculate the optimal time frame. Planting seeds early leads to a lack of nutrition for the development of seedlings due to the rapid depletion of soil reserves.
Late is fraught with belated fruiting of plants, a decrease in productivity. When choosing a time period, it is worth starting from the moon phase, taking into account the variety of eggplants, their ripening period, from germination to ripeness of the fruit. So the period for early varieties is 90-120 days, medium - 120-140 days, late - 40 days or more.
When calculating the optimal period for planting eggplants, an important role is played by the time for seed treatment - 2-3 days, germination and until the desired state (77-90 days).
Worth knowing! The climate even in central and southern Russia is unstable, and the forecast is not accurate.
For this reason, many summer residents adhere to popular belief. Peppers are planted on February 23rd, tomatoes on March 8th.
How to determine the sowing time depending on the region
In order for the seeds to hatch together and grow quickly, it is recommended to take into account certain phases of the moon, varietal requirements, and the weather in a given area.
Planting tomatoes in:
- Southern regions of Russia starts from the beginning of February;
- Central part - from March 15 with mandatory verification of planting material for germination;
- in the Krasnodar Territory, which is located in the south of the country, you can plant seeds immediately in open ground, counting the age of the seedlings - up to 60 days.
In Moscow and the region, frosts may return in May-June. Sowing seeds for seedlings is carried out from mid-March to mid-April. When planting tomatoes in a greenhouse - in early March.
The optimal days of planting directly into open ground for central Russia are March 14 - 22, 30. To the greenhouse - the last days of February.
For the Urals and Siberia, where the spring is long, planting seeds of early ripening varieties begins in early April. In mid-May, you can transfer the seedlings to the greenhouse.
Summer is short in the northern regions of the country. Often tomatoes do not have time to ripen before the cold weather. Summer residents are advised to sow exceptionally early ripening varieties, reading the ripening dates on the seed bags. Also sow directly into open ground in mid-May, if the temperature warms up to +16 degrees.
Of course, sowing seeds in February requires backlighting for the sprouts so that they don't stretch out. If sown in March, the sprouts hatch faster. Seedlings grow strong. The seedlings will painlessly tolerate the pick.
The note! March is the best time for sowing tomatoes of medium, late varieties. Early ripening can be sown in early April.
Let's watch a video about which days are suitable for sowing and planting plants according to the lunar calendar:
Is it necessary to process the seeds before planting, what products can be used
Purchased seeds are necessarily processed, especially if purchased from unknown producers.
Neutralization is carried out by soaking the selected seeds for 20 minutes in solutions:
- potassium permanganate;
- hydrogen peroxide;
Then the seeds are washed in order to increase the yield.
They are additionally kept in a solution of drugs: Zircon or Epin.
Quality seeds are supplied by proven agricultural firms: Sedek, Poisk, Gavrish.
If you are not sure about the manufacturer, then it is better to process the material yourself:
- soak in saline;
- reject, delete floating ones;
- neutralize in potassium manganese solution;
- harden by keeping in the refrigerator for up to 3 days.
Reference! When using potassium permanganate, the solution should be strong, dark purple in color. The seeds are kept for 25 minutes, then washed with running water. Many summer residents use diluted aloe juice, adaptogen solutions instead of purchased drugs.
The best soil for growing seedlings
Tomatoes need a versatile soil.
You can buy this in a specialized store or make it yourself, the recommended composition:
- humus - 3 parts;
- garden land - 2 parts;
- coarse river sand - 1 part;
- wood ash - 250 g (for 9-10 liters of soil mixture).
It is recommended to add peat or coconut substrate, scalding with boiling water to swell and disinfect. Instead of ash, you can use lime, dolomite, chalk.
Tomato seedlings grow strong if:
- add mineral fertilizer to the soil (3 tablespoons per bucket);
- feed with liquid complex fertilizer composed of elements of phosphorus, potassium, nitrogen.
- is mixed;
- is calcined in the oven;
- frozen or steamed.
You can simply spray with Fitosporin or potassium permanganate (hot solution).
What containers can be used
A shared box is a common option for growing tomatoes. The container must be disinfected, filled with nutrient soil.
We will indicate other types of containers in table 4.
|Container for seedlings||Description and features|
|Peat cups||It is convenient to transplant adult seedlings into open ground directly with them. The container will serve as a top dressing after soaking and decomposition in the ground. Also, there is no need to pick the sprouts.|
|Peat tablets (40-45 mm in diameter)||Convenient option. After all, the soil is not used. Each seedling is clearly visible during development and moves to another container if necessary. Sowing seeds in tablets will exclude the possibility of damage to the roots when picking. There will be no leaching of sprouts and seeds during watering.|
|Toilet paper||An economical, inexpensive option. Suitable for growing up to the dive phase and transplanting into separate containers.|
Alternatively, you can use a 1m length of plastic wrap to make some kind of cake. Then it is rolled up, cut into pieces (30x30 cm). The lower ends are connected. Soil (coconut substrate) is poured into prepared cups.
What conditions need to be created to get friendly seedlings
The first days after sowing seeds for tomato seedlings are the most difficult. In case of even a slight decrease in temperature, or lack of proper lighting, weak seedlings will quickly become unusable or stretch out.
Seeds are checked for germination before planting, sown dry or soaked in growth stimulants.
It is better to sow with a ruler in order to successfully place the seeds in a box with soil, maintaining a step of 1 cm, pressing with the narrow side of the ruler to a depth of 2 cm.Then the earth is slightly crushed, watered with warm water. The container is covered with glass or transparent film to increase germination.
It remains to establish containers with seedlings in a warm place (the optimum temperature is + 18 degrees), wait for the shoots. As soon as the sprouts hatch, it is worth opening the greenhouse, rearranging it to the sunny windowsill (south, southeast).
The main thing is that the rays of the midday sun do not fall on the container. Lighting must be good when unfolding the cotyledons and the correct laying of the growth point of the seedlings. As soon as 2 real sheets appear, you can make a pick. Plant 2 sprouts in separate containers.
Attention! Seedlings dive at the growing moon when the ground part has accumulated useful substances. The optimal days for 2020 are May 2-3, 8-9, 15-18.
To determine the exact time when sowing seeds for seedlings, the features of the climate of the region, phases, favorable days of the moon are taken into account.
Tomatoes grow better after cabbage, pumpkin, turnips, green onions, beets, carrots. It is impossible to plant in the ground after potatoes, eggplant, pepper, peas.
Many summer residents annually plant tomatoes, tomatoes in the greenhouse in the same place. It is recommended to sow mustard after each harvest.