There are various types and varieties of almonds, they differ significantly in taste, frost resistance and yield.
- Almonds: description of the plant and photo
- Types and varieties
- Self-pollinated almond varieties
- The most productive varieties
- Ornamental plants
- Nikitsky almonds and its features
- Almond foros: description and photo
- Growing at home
Almonds: description of the plant and photo
More than two hundred varieties are united under the general name of almonds. The plant is represented by low-growing shrubs or low trees, up to eight meters high, with a wide, branched crown.
It is conventionally divided into two varieties: sweet and bitter, which are outwardly difficult to distinguish. It will be possible to unambiguously determine only by the taste of the drupe.
Even fruit representatives have very beautiful flowering. The flowers are represented by five pubescent sepals and white, sometimes pink petals, five on each bud.
The foliage resembles an ellipse, slightly elongated and shiny, it covers the plant a few weeks after flowering.
The fruit is a drupe, which cracks after it is ripe. Inside is a seed with one or two edible seeds. The pips may be shriveled or smooth to the touch.
The overwhelming majority of species are found in areas with a warm, temperate climate, represented by evergreen or deciduous trees and shrubs. These are thermophilic plants that do not tolerate drafts and a sharp drop in temperatures.
Types and varieties
Three types of almonds are conventionally distinguished: bitter, sweet and thin-walled. At the same time, there are much more varieties, they have their own characteristic features.
The most popular and widespread varieties are those indicated in table 1.
|Variety name||Characteristics and features of the variety|
Distributed in the steppe and forest-steppe zone, Central Asia and Siberia.
In height, this deciduous shrub reaches no more than one and a half meters, the crown is distinguished by a dense spherical shape.
The leaves are up to six centimeters long, light green from the bottom and dark green from the top.
It blooms in pink, single buds, which open simultaneously with the appearance of foliage, in May, for several weeks.
Known for drought and winter hardiness, life expectancy - up to eighty years
Shrub, reaching a height of up to two meters.
It features large dark foliage and pink, fragrant flowers that appear in early May.
The first fruits are formed in the eleventh year of life, ripen by September.
Known for its resistance to winter temperature fluctuations
It can be represented by a tree form or a shrub, reaching a height of up to eight meters.
In nature, it is found in the territory of Asia Minor and Central Asia, Afghanistan, Iran.
It blooms with white-pink buds that appear in late winter before the leaves form.
The fruits are represented by flattened drupes with a drying pericarp and a large, edible bone
A small shrub, not reaching more than a meter in height, comes from the Western Tien Shan.
It begins to bloom from the age of three, the buds appear in May and last for twenty days.
Fruiting begins at the age of five.
Fruits are reddish in color, densely pubescent
|Three-bladed (luizeania three-bladed)|
It is represented by deciduous shrubs or trees up to five meters high.
Comes from North China.
Flowering begins in May, crimson buds, densely cover the shoots.
The leaves are grayish below and yellow-green from the top, the fruits easily fall off the tree.
Depending on the variety, almonds have their own characteristics, which are important to consider when choosing a particular plant. Particularly great attention should be paid to the indicators of winter hardiness.
We offer you to watch a video about the types and varieties of almonds:
Self-pollinated almond varieties
Most varieties are not self-pollinated and need additional pollination by insects.
However, there are also such representatives who do not need external intervention, we will indicate them in Table 2.
|Variety name||Characteristics and features of the variety|
Differs in an average ripening period with a spreading high crown.
Begins to bloom late, bears fruit in the third year after planting.
Fruit ripening should be expected in early September.
The fruits are large, the average weight of one fruit is 4 grams
Recognizable for its compact crown and resistance to summer water shortages and winter frosts.
The first fruits can be expected as early as the third year after planting.
Differs in increased resistance to typical diseases of almonds and many pests from the world of insects
Comes from Germany.
Not particularly common in the country, in order to get a seedling, you will have to order it in advance.
Popular due to its high yield and frost resistance
Self-pollinated varieties are good because they do not need additional pollination measures. However, they are less common and their seedlings are not always easy to find.
The most productive varieties
Not all species yield the same amount of yield.
The most productive representatives are the varieties shown in Table 3.
|Variety name||Description of the variety, characteristics|
|Alushtinsky||A small drought and frost-resistant bush. The grains ripen early, firm and sweet in taste. 40 kg of crop can be removed from one bush|
|Viktoria||Frost-resistant form, the first harvest should be expected in the fourth year after planting. The weight of one fruit is 4-9 g, up to 40 kg can be removed from the bush|
|Sevastopol||Shrub form, refers to the late. Fruits are dense and sweet, up to 40 kg of yield|
|Petiolate||Height does not exceed one meter, common in the steppe zone. The harvest is 20 kg|
|Steppe||It reaches a height of one and a half meters, it is drought and frost resistant. The harvest is about 20 kg.|
Despite the fact that these representatives are considered one of the most productive, it is important to remember that the number of nuts in the end also depends on proper care.
A plant that is deficient in nutrients will not be able to produce a large harvest.
Since this is a fairly beautiful plant, with lush flowering, decorative plants have long been separated from fruit plants.
The most common in the middle lane are those indicated in Table 4.
|Ornamental variety name||Description and features of the variety, decorative qualities|
|Bobovik and its forms (Pink fog, White sail, Pink flamingo, Anyuta)|
When planting, it is important to decide in advance on the site.
For abundant flowering, it is better to place it in a well-lit place, for long-term - in the shade.
Visually, it may resemble a steppe head start, but it has large leaves.
In the natural environment, it is distributed on the wooded slopes of the mountains in the Caucasus.
It can reach a height of one and a half meters, a well-developed root.
It is appreciated by many gardeners for its relative unpretentiousness, it tolerates temperature fluctuations and winds well, and can withstand attacks from pests and diseases.
Deep pink buds
It is considered one of the most popular decorative representatives, despite its low height.
Ledebour comes from the Altai plains and foothills.
The special value of Ledebura is early flowering and general unpretentiousness to growing conditions.
The first buds are formed in early May in a deep pink color and last for two, sometimes even three, weeks.
This species comes from the rocky uplands of Central Asia.
The origin of the shrub is easy to guess by its appearance, which is distinguished by grayish bark, elongated leaves and a small high-rise bush.
It is rare to see representatives of even a meter in height.
Despite the seeming unpretentiousness, it is known for its beautiful flowering, single buds of a bright pink hue
|Ruslana||A hybrid, derived from a three-lobed, can also change shade from initially beige to snow-white. For this it is especially appreciated by gardeners.|
|Snows of Wimura|
A well-known hybrid, interesting in one peculiarity.
The flowers are large, collected in double inflorescences, which gradually, over time, change their shade from initially pink to cream
It reaches a height of one and a half meters, blooms for ten days with a delicate white-pink hue.
A pleasant plus is the pleasant aroma and edibility of the grains.
A hybrid that gets its name from its characteristic leaf shape.
Grows well in illuminated areas, but does not tolerate drafts.
The buds appear in mid-May, the shade can vary from pale pink to rich crimson
It is popular for its large, up to three centimeters in diameter, deep pink flowers.
The shrub is small but compact, looks great in the garden
Shrubs are not demanding on conditions, it is not so difficult to grow them in the garden.
For minimal care and a properly selected area, they will fully reward gardeners with gentle and abundant flowering.
Almond Nikitsky and its features
A fairly popular variety for areas of temperate climates, it has high frost resistance.
The first buds are formed at the end of May, the grains are distinguished by a sweet taste and a high percentage of oils.
Other characteristics include:
- The height reaches five meters, the crown is spreading, dense;
- The foliage is large, with carved edges and edging. The upper part has a dark green tint, the lower one is slightly lighter;
- The buds are medium in size, slightly pinkish;
- Fruiting begins in the sixth year from planting. To obtain grains, it needs additional pollination.
Nikitinsky can be called ideal for areas with cold winters. Resistant to temperature fluctuations, it will not die from the cold.
Almond Foros: description and photo
Foros is represented by a medium-sized tree, not exceeding four meters in height with a dense, spreading oval crown. It is a hybrid form that has been bred specifically for high yield. Differs in high indicators of drought resistance, without problems tolerates long periods of lack of moisture, which is especially important for the North Caucasus region.
Differs in dark green, pubescent foliage.
Flowering begins in May, fruits can be harvested in September. The nuclei are well separated from the pericarp, the shell is not hard.
Foros is great for areas with a lack of natural rainfall and irrigation water. Despite insufficient moisture, it gives a good harvest.
Growing at home
Growing almonds at home is not that difficult. So, if the raw material is fresh, then the grain peeled from the shell will germinate perfectly, it is not at all necessary to look for a whole nut with an intact shell.
The only thing to consider is stratification before germination. To do this, place the nuts in the refrigerator for a month and a half, artificially simulating the winter temperature for it.
The variety has a certain meaning. Since the sprouted shoots will sooner or later have to be transferred to open ground conditions, it is important to pay attention to the varietal characteristics of the seed.
So, it is better to select winter-hardy species with late flowering. It should be remembered that spring frosts can simply destroy delicate flowers. Therefore, the famous Italian, Central Asian and Greek trees should be postponed, since their flowering begins already at the end of February.
The most suitable varieties can be called: Alexander, self-pollinated Nikitinsky 62, Leninabad, Milas, Bospor. It is they who are distinguished by late flowering, quick ripening and a bountiful harvest.
However, it is important to keep in mind that most of these varieties are not self-pollinating, so several trees need to be grown in the garden.
It is recommended to use only seeds for planting almonds. A branch from a bush or tree will not work, it will not let the roots. However, it can be grafted onto apricots or peaches, which are considered the closest relatives. In fact, almonds cannot be called a real nut, it is exactly a stone fruit, since we eat exactly the seed, not the pulp.
To germinate a seed, it is necessary to select several strong seeds and place them in water at room temperature. Wait twelve hours and change the water. By this time, the nuts will swell a little, then they are sent into the water for another ten hours.
At the same time, it is important to remember: if the almonds are in the shell, after the first soaking, it should be carefully chopped from a sharp edge, but not completely removed.
Within a day, the seeds should give the first shoots. At this time, they can be planted.
There are many different types of almonds, which differ in purpose and characteristics of cultivation. This plant can be grown both for harvesting and as a decorative form.
We offer you to watch an interesting video about planting and growing almonds: