With the growing interest in gardens and parks, there are more and more interested and those who want to know everything about landscape design. And this is not surprising, since it is quite an interesting and remarkable phenomenon.
- Everything about landscape design, what is meant by this concept
- What is included in landscape design
- Types of landscape design
- Landscaping for beginners
- Point one - creating a project
- Point two - direct preparation of the territory
- Paragraph three - engineering and construction activities
- Point four - installation of architectural forms, decor and landscaping
- Types of gardens in landscape design, the most popular styles
- When is it more rational to contact a specialist in landscape design
Everything about landscape design, what is meant by this concept
Modern landscape design combines three areas: botany, architecture with design and philosophy. In the process of arranging, first of all, a diagram of the future composition is drawn up, followed by the selection of a component. At the same time, the design of the site is subject to a strict style that corresponds to the rules of landscape design.
Depending on the direction, different details can act as structural components, however, the basis is a garden, a lawn with paths, flower beds, gazebos, fountains and shrubs. Additionally, architectural compositions and alpine slides can be used.
Thanks to a correctly drawn up design project, you can not only improve the site, but also change it beyond recognition. In a place where plants are correctly selected and they do not hinder each other, it will be possible to relax not only physically, but also mentally.
Everything about landscape design and the principles of creating a minimalist option with your own hands - in the video:
What is included in landscape design
Under the general name, there are a number of components used when working as a landscape designer.
The main ones are those indicated in the table.
|Garden||Decorative, fruit or combined. Plant breeds can vary depending on personal or stylistic wishes.|
|Alpine slides||They are built from natural stone and coniferous vegetation. Particularly successful is the placement of an alpine slide next to a reservoir, in a well-lit, draft-protected area.|
|Gazebos, sculptures, awnings and benches||Components of garden micro-architecture. They perform both practical functions - protection from the sun and a place of rest, as well as decorative|
|Water bodies||They can be represented by fountains, small ponds or pools. They perform two functions at once - humidifying the environment and bring aesthetic pleasure. However, it is important to take into account that you need to care for the reservoir as thoroughly as for the lawn.|
|Lawns||They differ in growth rate and density, require regular feeding and haircuts. Since the grass grows very quickly, a lawnmower is essential.|
|Vertical gardening details||Lianas, grapes, hops and other climbing species that decorate hedges, walls or fences. Often used to hide bad areas|
|Paths||They play the direct role of a path connecting different sections, which is why they deserve special attention, since they must organically fit into the interior. It is important to take into account the soil profile and structure of the land to design a path. The path can be covered with gravel or tiles on top|
|Flower beds in the form of separate flower beds, borders, mixed plantings or rabatka||They are used to accentuate attention on any moment of the landscape with bright floral colors.|
There are many options for combining these components, allowing you to create a unique garden that will fully meet the wishes of the owner.
Types of landscape design
Depending on the characteristic features, there are three types of landscape design: landscape, regular and Japanese. They differ in characteristics and requirements that appear at the design stage.
It is characterized by the maximum correspondence to the natural relief. In this form, there are no symmetrical plantings and flower beds, at first glance it might seem that the person did not put his hand to the arrangement of the site, but this is not at all the case.
In landscape-type projects, asymmetric flower beds predominate, and shrubs and trees are distinguished by natural outlines, curly haircuts are not applied to them.
Landscape projects emphasize naturalness not only by the appearance of natural asymmetry of plants, but also by the confusion of paths. Even the seating area is often made of wood for maximum natural realism.
This is the exact opposite of the landscape view. Differs in severity of forms, symmetry of lines and harmony of elements. Looks best in park areas and on the territory of large personal plots.
Every part of the regular garden follows a strict and clear geometric shape.
Another distinctive feature is the presence of flower beds with clearly calculated flower arrangements.
The paths necessarily form a complex network with a large number of intersections and sharp turns. This species is characterized by a large number of sculptures, long alleys, arches and rotundas.
This style is based not on a scientific approach, but on Eastern philosophy. Not surprisingly, this species is strikingly different from others.
The main components are: a stone, which symbolizes spiritual endurance, water, a symbol of the transience of human existence, and a tree, symbolizing constant change and improvement.
In a Japanese garden, these elements must be harmoniously arranged, creating favorable conditions for meditation and contemplation.
The basis is sute-ishi, or the art of correctly placing stones on the site. To create a truly philosophical composition, it is necessary to carefully select stones in color, size and shape.
In addition to stones, reservoirs are an important component, but a variety of ornamental plants, on the contrary, is not desirable.
Landscaping for beginners
The basics of creating a project and working with it are taught in specialized universities and, if there is no relevant education behind you, you will have to strictly follow a number of points.
Exact adherence to the order of the stages of work will help the beginner not to be mistaken in the first case, but to complete it as efficiently as possible.
Point one - creating a project
First of all, you need to decide what the result should be, what species it belongs to and what kind of breed you would like to see in it.
Depending on the chosen style, roughly plan out where and what will be located, what the main idea will be: will it be a place for rest and meditation, a labyrinth or a place where you can grill barbecue and play with children.
Next, you need to pay attention to such points as:
- Creation of a sketch plan, which will give an opportunity to see the design in full. To compile it, you need to measure the site, making notes on the map with the appropriate scale preservation. Here, schematically depict the planned location of paths, trees, a reservoir or architectural forms;
- Coordinate the sketch with a topographic plan, which can only be made by a surveyor. The plan should show elevation differences, ravines, streams and communications;
- Draw up a plan for the location of green spaces, which takes into account both the lawn and large trees. When choosing plants, it is important that they match the original idea. This plan will help you determine how many and which plants you need to purchase, how to place them in accordance with the time and duration of flowering;
- Prepare a center drawing with a paving plan and an accurate indication of paths, alleys and paths. Here it is necessary to indicate their number, length and material for paving;
- Draw up a plan of utilities with an automatic irrigation scheme, placement of a water supply system for irrigation, a stormwater system and drainage ditches;
- Create a lighting scheme indicating the location of the electrical panel and power sources for lighting fixtures.
At the end, it is recommended to combine all plans into one detailed 3D project, which will make it possible to fully assess the future picture with the most realistic visualization.
Point two - direct preparation of the territory
Before proceeding with the direct transfer of the project to the territory, it is necessary to carry out cleaning: remove construction waste, fallen leaves, weeds and branches. Establish boundaries that the technician must not cross.
Conduct a preliminary vertical layout with excavation pit for future reservoirs. At this stage, it is possible to align unwanted ravines and mounds.
Lay "troughs" for future drainage canals and paths, dig communication trenches.
Paragraph three - engineering and construction activities
At this stage, water supply, irrigation, drainage and lighting systems are laid. If necessary, the soil is brought in for plantings.
They mark the future landscaping.
At the end of the stage, paths are paved, ponds, arches and gazebos are being decorated.
Point four - installation of architectural forms, decor and landscaping
Before planting plants, finally equip ponds, gazebos, sculptures. After all the decor elements take their places, go to landscaping.
First of all, it is recommended to plant trees, if necessary, provide the hole with drainage and feeding. When planting, it is important to focus on the root collar - it should not fall above or below the soil level.
After the trees, start planting shrubs - starting with the largest ones. Tying to temporary supports if necessary. It is better to plant hedges along tight threads.
After the shrubs, start planting perennial flowering, bulbous and climbing plants. The last to be planted are annuals and a lawn.
However, considering all the costs of time, effort and finances, the beginner master of landscape design does not win much. The only thing that is invaluable in this case is experience.
Let's watch an interesting video about creating an unusual landscape design on the site:
Types of gardens in landscape design, the most popular styles
At the planning stage of the future garden, the style in which it will be sustained is determined. Each of the currently existing styles has a number of features that characterize it.
The most popular styles are as follows.
|Alpine||The mountain garden is easy to care for and picturesque. It is characterized by relief, an abundance of stones, the absence of fences and gazebos on the lows. And of course, alpine slides with perennials. This style is characterized by the planting of plants by islands with alternating monocultural groups with multicultural ones, and the details of vertical gardening will not be superfluous.|
|English||Appeared in England at the beginning of the 18th century. It is distinguished by smooth lines and contours, the continuity of the house and the garden, stone-paved paths, vertical landscaping, a large number of perennials and reservoirs that look like natural ones. The main feature of the style is the desire for naturalness. Among the architecture there are stone or wooden benches and statues. The flowers are dominated by greenery with white, lilac and crimson buds.|
|Dutch||It features a parterre lawn, a predominance of shrubs and flowers, hedges, mixborders along the paths and funny figurines. Bulbous (lilies, tulips, daffodils), mordovic, delphinium and foxglove are especially popular greens in this style. The main condition for this style is its openness - the hedges are low and not thick, the color scheme is distinguished by bright greens, blue, white and scarlet shades|
|Country, or rustic||The basis of which is naturalness, light disorder, gravel paths, fruit trees and vegetable gardens. There are elements of wicker fences, flowers are located not only in the beds. Plants are simple, the decor is represented by a wide variety of elements of rustic utensils|
|Mauritanian||Differs in splendor and an abundance of colors. This style is emphatically closed, it is characterized by an abundance of strict geometric shapes and symmetry. The plants are fragrant, both trees and herbs. The site itself is divided into four equal parts by paths and bushes. Greens are represented by peaches, quince, roses and aromatic bushes. The color scheme is presented in juicy greens, yellows, purples and purples.|
|Ecostyle||Fashionable style today, which is based on minimal interference with nature. All materials used in it are of natural origin, characteristic of the area. The grass is not lawn, but wild, field, paths are lined with stone, trees and shrubs, native to the site. The design features simple wood furnishings, a canopy and a fireplace. This style is characterized by soft, natural colors.|
Each style is diverse and does not require strict adherence to the framework, offering a huge number of options for each specific case.
In what case is it more rational to contact a specialist in landscape design
Despite the fact that sometimes, with the proper degree of perseverance, you can equip the site yourself, it is far from always possible to do without the help of a specialist.
So it will be irreplaceable in a number of cases:
- With the wrong shape of the site, it is quite difficult to draw up a plan and calculate in detail future work, in this case you need the help of a specialist;
- Difficult terrain - the inhabitants often solve this "problem" with the help of bulk soil, which deprives them of a number of advantages, and most importantly, the area;
- High groundwater - which complicates the process of carrying out communications and arrangement of small architectural forms;
- The presence of wild vegetation with which an experienced craftsman can do something interesting or, on the contrary, will recommend removing emergency items;
- Non-standard idea of arrangement.
Of course, you will have to spend money on this, but the result will delight you for many years, while unsuccessful arbitrariness can ruin a beautiful site.
Landscaping is an important industry that is responsible not only for the aesthetic side of parks and gardens, but also for the functional.
So only a designer can draw up a work plan in which everything will be harmonious and correct.