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How to grow a dogwood from a stone, cultivation techniques, popular varieties


Cornel is not the most common shrub in gardens and in areas of the middle lane, even despite its unique properties: flavoring and medicinal. Most often, it is found in warm climates: in the Caucasus, Crimea, and some Asian countries.

Let's see why this southern visitor is so useful and unique and why gardeners appreciate him?

Content:

  1. Brief description of the plant
  2. When dogwood begins to bear fruit
  3. Plant propagation methods. How to grow dogwood and propagate it?
  4. A detailed description of growing dogwood from seeds, care for seedlings
  5. Dogwood care: basic agricultural methods
  6. Most popular varieties
  7. Harvesting and processing of crops

Brief description of the plant

Cornel is a perennial small shrub of the cornel family. The most common are deciduous species, but there are also evergreens.

It is most widespread in Asian countries, China, Japan, Crimea, and Eastern Europe. The average height of a shrub or tree is 2 - 4 m.

The leaves on the branches are pointed, located opposite each other, opposite, elongated landslide shape. The flowers are creamy white, collected in inflorescences, about 5 cm in diameter. Flowering occurs in May and does not last long, about 15 days.

Fruits - drupes with 1 or 2 seeds differ in their size and shape, depending on the variety. For cultivated species, the fruits reach a size of 3 cm in length, with an elongated or rounded shape.

Most often, red fruits ripen, but there are also pink, yellow, black, orange. The taste is also very varied: from tart, dryish to juicy and sweet. The root system is branched, located on the soil surface.

When does dogwood begin to bear fruit?

If this is a cultivated seedling, fruits should be expected for 8-10 years, and if it is a one-year grafted seedling, then the first small harvest is also in the first year, and after a couple of years the plant gives a full harvest.

The shrub itself grows well, therefore it is often used as a hedge, lives on average up to 100 years.

Plant propagation methods. How to grow dogwood and propagate it?

It reproduces quite well and can be done in 4 different ways:

Layers

This method is the easiest and consists in the fact that young one-year or two-year-old shoots are bent to the soil and fixed, and a little soil (7-10 cm) is poured on top and periodically moistened.

The whole process of emergence of roots takes about 1 year. In the fall, the young seedling is separated from the mother bush and transplanted to a new place.

Cuttings

For reproduction, take green cuttings from annual shoots in the middle of summer. All the leaves are cut on them by 1/3, and the cuttings themselves are soaked for at least 5 hours in the root, or in any other similar preparation.

After soaking, the cuttings are planted in a prepared, slightly darkened place; by the end of the growing season, more than half of them take root.

For already lignified cuttings, the material must be taken in the fall and stored in the refrigerator until spring. Before planting in the ground, they are placed in a solution that stimulates the formation of roots.

They take root closer to autumn, but are very sensitive to soil drying out.

Vaccination

The method is suitable for varietal dogwood in natural conditions. For grafting, you need to find healthy strong seedlings of a wild bush. In spring, the grafting takes root poorly, therefore, autumn budding is more often used.

The technique is the same as for other trees. With successful budding, the leaf petiole does not fade for up to 2-3 weeks, and then disappears. After 30 - 40 days, the harness is removed, and in the spring above the growing scion, the stock is cut off on it. Gradually cut off all the shoots of the stock.

Seeds

The most difficult and time consuming process. Germination takes a long time, it is difficult, and seedlings begin to bear fruit late (at 8-10 years old). If it is nevertheless necessary to grow a shrub from seeds, they take seeds from green berries and plant them immediately in the chosen place.

The planted seeds are watered abundantly, and seedlings should be expected in the spring. If you take seeds from ripe fruits, it will be necessary to perform scarification and stratification.

These two methods will help to shorten the germination period, but they require skill and knowledge so as not to damage the fragile embryo when cutting the shell.

A detailed description of growing dogwood from seeds, care for seedlings

To grow a dogwood from a stone, you need to know how to do it correctly. The whole process consists of several stages:

  • First, they take out the bone from the fruit, pouring it with warm water and covering it with a lid on top. This starts the fermentation process. After a few days, the seeds are taken out of the fruit by hand, washed with water, sprinkled with sawdust and stored for a year and a half in a cold place.
  • Before sowing, the seeds are warmed up near the battery from the end of February for about 6-7 days.
  • The soil should be composed of fertile soil, compost and sand in equal proportions. Containers with planted seeds are watered, covered with a dark film and placed in a warm place.
  • After the appearance of the first shoots, the shelter is removed and rearranged on the illuminated windowsills.
  • Underground seedlings are transplanted to a permanent place after all frosts have passed and truly warm weather is established. The soil under the young shoots is covered with sawdust, watered and often loosened to allow air to reach the roots.
  • After stratification, the seeds are planted immediately into the ground to a depth of 3 cm in early - mid-May.
  • To insulate and create favorable conditions, the seed plot is covered with plastic wrap. Remove the shelter after emergence.

In summer, young sprouts require careful care: they must be protected from direct sunlight, watered and loosened.

For the first winter, plants are insulated with humus mulch, and spruce branches or fallen leaves are laid on top. In the spring, they get rid of the shelter gradually: first, the top layer is removed, and after a week - the second.

Dogwood care: basic agricultural methods

This southern plant is quite unpretentious, and does not require large physical costs to get a good harvest. Planting a tree is an important step, and you must choose the right place on the site.

Planting and replanting in autumn on the southwestern side of the plots is more favorable for dogwood.
The place should be slightly darkened, at a distance of at least 5 meters from the fence and other structures.

The landing pits should be 60 cm in depth and in diameter.

The pit is filled with a mixture of fertile soil, humus and mineral fertilizing.
The root collar is overestimated from the soil level by 2-3 cm, when the earth subsides, it will be equal to it.

After planting, the shrub is watered with 2 buckets of water.

Always plant several plants nearby - cross-pollination will significantly increase yields.

The main work should be directed to the following processes.

Watering

For an adult plant, it is required infrequently, only in very dry periods. And for a bush of 1 year of life, watering is organized much more often for good growth and development.

Top dressing

In spring and autumn, organic fertilizers are applied to the trunks (2-3 kg per m3). Mineral fertilizers are used in different ways, depending on the season. In the fall, they are needed with a phosphorus content (30 g / m3), and in the spring - potash (11-12 g / m3) and nitrogen (17-20 g / m3).

Mulching

Required to retain heat and moisture in the soil, as well as for additional nutrition. Almost any materials for mulching are suitable: sawdust, peat, mown grass, fallen leaves.

Pruning

They are engaged in the design of the crown during the first few years of life. The stem is formed 60-70 cm in height and 5-7 main branches. The lower shoots are removed completely. Then only sanitary pruning is carried out: dry, damaged and broken branches, small shoots that thicken the crown are cut off.

Loosening, weeding

Required as weeds grow and soil crust forms. The soil is loosened to a depth of 10 cm periodically, so oxygen and fertilizing will better penetrate inside, which is especially important for a young bush.

Most popular varieties

Among the varieties of dogwood there are many "favorites" of gardeners who are time-tested, give a good harvest and have high taste, among them there are such varieties as:

  • Tender. The variety bears fruit annually. The berries are bright yellow, shaped like a bottle.
  • Vydubetsky. Fruits are large, weighing up to 7.5 g. Characterized by low shedding - well attached to the branches.
  • Glowworm. This variety is one of the large-fruited, the berries are large, expanding towards the base.
  • Semyon. A popular species, with pear-shaped berries of a dark cherry hue.
  • Elegant. The fruits are almost the same in shape and size, have a thin neck. When ripe, it is black - cherry color.
  • Amber. A variety with transparent yellow oval fruits, medium weight (3 g), ripening offensive in September, but they are removed from the bush in advance so that they do not crumble.
  • Vladimirsky. The oval, cylinder-shaped berries are dark red in color and taste sweet with sourness. They ripen early, towards the end of summer, and are great for fresh use, for processing and in freezing.
  • Helena. A distinctive feature is frost resistance. The berries (5-6 g) have a dark red color. Ripen evenly, but crumbles.

Harvesting and processing: dishes with dogwood

When picking berries, it is worth observing the time frame, knowing the ripening time of the variety and examining the shrub. You need to harvest on time, as the fruits quickly begin to crumble, and this will significantly complicate the harvesting process.

Eat fresh, freeze, prepare jam, jam, tinctures. Used as an addition to various vegetable and meat dishes.

Here are some interesting recipes using this delicious and healthy plant.

Cornelian jam with orange

  • Orange - 2 pcs.
  • Cornel - 1 kg.
  • Sugar - 0.5 kg.

Remove seeds from ripe berries, cover with sugar. Remove the zest from the orange and rub the zest in a bowl to the berry mass, and squeeze the juice there. The mixture is put on a small fire, and constantly stirring and removing the foam, cook after boiling for about 12 - 15 minutes.

In this form, they are left overnight, and in the morning they are heated again on low heat until bubbles appear and immediately poured into jars. Store such a sweet treat in a cool place.

Soup-puree

  • Cornel - 0.2 kg
  • Sugar - 25 g
  • Cream 20% - 35 gr.
  • Water - 0.25 liters.

Before cooking, the fruits are sorted, washed, and rubbed until mashed. Or remove all the bones and interrupt with a blender.

Squeezes are poured with water, sugar is added and cooked on the stove for 4 - 5 minutes. After cooling, pour into the puree, mix, add cream, a sprig of mint or crackers to taste.

Pumpkin honey dessert

  • Pumpkin - 0.5 kg
  • Cornel - 0.25 kg
  • Walnuts - 1 cup (shelled)
  • Powdered sugar - 5 teaspoons
  • Honey - 2 tbsp. l.

The pumpkin is peeled, cut into small cubes and stewed with water for about 30-40 minutes. When ready, turn off the heat, drain the liquid and cool the vegetable. The berries are poured with water and cooked until soft for about 15 minutes.

The cooled fruits are rubbed through a sieve or chopped with a blender. The walnuts are ground into crumbs, meanwhile the honey is diluted in 200 ml of warm water and poured into the nuts. Combine all ingredients and mix well. Chilled dessert is served with powdered sugar.

For many summer residents, growing this southern tree is an interesting and easy task. The fruit tree is unpretentious in care and cultivation, bears fruit for decades, gives a bountiful annual harvest, but requires clear actions and compliance with some requirements for watering, soil and pruning. And the berries are tasty and healthy not only fresh, but also for processing, in cooking.

You can learn more about the features of care, reproduction, planting and harvesting in more detail, for this, watch the video we offer, take note of all the useful tips, when growing dogwood, they will be useful to you:


Watch the video: Flowering dogwood Cornus florida - Plant Identification (December 2021).