Who among us doesn't like sweet and juicy apples? Some people like to eat them fresh, others - baked with honey and cinnamon, while others like aromatic apple pies, jams, mulled wine and compotes.
But no matter how you eat these fruits, they contain in any form a large set of micro and macro elements, vitamins that are useful for the human body. Apples are grown everywhere, but Polish varieties are very popular.
- Characteristics of the fetus and its composition
- Description of the Polish variety Ligol
- Description of the Champion variety
- Characteristics of the Gala variety
- Apple tree seedlings from Poland
Brief characteristics of the fetus and its composition
Apple is the name of the fruit from the apple tree. Juicy, multi-seeded and non-expanding fruit. The structure is similar to berries. These fruit trees appeared in the countries of Central Asia, where today there are a large number of wild gardens.
In ancient times, it was cultivated in Egypt, in the place of modern Israel and Palestine, and even in Rome and Ancient Greece. Today, a huge number of species and varieties of apple trees are known and they are grown in almost all corners of the world, especially in America, China and European countries.
In areas with a temperate climate, a domestic apple tree is common. And the apples themselves come in all kinds of sizes and colors: yellow, green, red, white, with a pink "blush", and in shape - round, cylindrical, flattened on the sides, oval, in the form of a cone.
The pulp differs in taste depending on the type, most often sweet and sour, but there are also bitter and tart fruits.
The apple is often called the fruit of health due to the large amount of vitamins it contains:
- Vitamin A (beta - carotene) - 0.02 mg.
- Vitamin B - 0.02 mg.
- Vitamin B2 - 0.02 mg.
- Folic acid - 1.7 mcg.
- Vitamin C - 11 mg
- Potassium 279 mg.
- Magnesium - 8 mg
- Calcium - 17 mg
- Sodium - 25 mg
- Phosphorus - 10 mg
- Iron 2.1 mg.
- Iodine - 2.3 mcg.
- Cobalt 1 mcg.
- Copper - 110 mcg.
- Fluoride - 8 mcg.
- Zinc - 150 mcg.
And 100 grams contains:
- Water - 87.6 g.
- Proteins - 0.5 g.
- Fat - 0.4 g.
- Carbohydrates - 11.9 g.
- Fiber - 0.7 g.
- Pectins - 1.2 g.
- Organic acids -0.8 g.
The calorie content of an average apple is 45 kcal.
This is not only tasty, but also healthy fruit, the use of which is recommended all year round for the prevention of the onset of diseases and the treatment of existing ones:
- help with sleep disorders;
- relieve severe headache.
And freshly squeezed juice is used to treat:
- diseases of the digestive system;
- genitourinary system;
- various kinds of infections.
They have pronounced diuretic and choleretic properties, activates the metabolic processes of the body, and recently scientists have proven the anticancer properties of this fruit.
Description of the Polish variety Ligol
Europe is rightfully the leader among European countries in the cultivation and export of various types of apples. Ligol is a relatively recent, but already very popular Polish variety, in demand in many countries of the world.
Ligol apples appeared in 1972 at one of the Polish universities in the city of Skornewice by crossing Golden Delicious and Linda. Productivity will delight any gardener: trees of this variety that have reached full maturity are capable of producing up to 10 tons of fruits per hectare.
Apples are not only tasty, but also large and beautiful. The average weight is about 200 grams, or even more, the shape of the fruit is classic: round, slightly narrowed in the upper part. The skin is not thick, shiny, smooth, the ribs on the surface are practically not felt.
The color of the fruit is yellowish-green, and by the time of ripeness, a bright pink or red blush appears on the peel. Numerous ribs are visible on the surface. The pulp is the color of baked milk, juicy, rather dense.
To taste - sweet with sourness, with a strong, pronounced pleasant aroma.
Harvesting occurs in late September or early October. Apples for export, after being harvested, are stacked from storage, maintaining optimal temperature and humidity indicators in order to reach their peak ripeness by January.
When stored properly, this species retains all its qualities and appearance until mid-spring.
The purpose of Ligol is universal, but it is more often used for processing due to its peculiarity (no darkening of the pulp on the cuts).
Apple trees are medium in height, about 2.5 - 4 meters. The crown is not dense, grows in the shape of a pyramid and requires frequent pruning due to the large number of constantly growing young shoots. Long-lasting flowering occurs in late spring.
Ligol is a self-fertile variety, therefore, for the appearance of fruit on a tree nearby, it is necessary to plant pollinating trees: Macintosh, Gloucester, Fuji, Champion, Spartan, Idared.
Fruiting occurs, as a rule, 3-4 years after planting. Trees require high-quality molding; without it, fruiting after receiving an excess harvest may not occur, and the trees will simply rest next year.
The species is resistant to low temperatures and resistant to diseases such as scab. The main ailment that Ligol is prone to is a bacterial burn.
There is no truly effective means of combating the disease, the main thing is to periodically inspect the trees and follow some simple rules:
- When trimming, disinfect the tools;
- Do not oversaturate the soil with nitrogen fertilizers;
- Fight disease-carrying insects;
- Spray with copper compounds.
Propagated by planting seedlings of one or two years of age and grafting cuttings. At the same time, it is necessary to maintain a sufficiently large distance between the apple trees for full illumination.
Description of the Champion variety
Apple trees of this species are distinguished by their unusual taste and high yield. Agriculture of Poland is a producer of Champion apples and is a leader in export in Europe.
The Champion appeared thanks to Czech breeders in 1970. For this, breeders crossed Golden Delicious and Renet Orange Coke. The apple tree itself is medium-sized, stable annual fruiting begins at 3 years old, has a strong immunity to scab and powdery mildew, the harvested crop is stored for about six months.
Apple trees bloom profusely and produce fruits of medium size (190 - 250 g), uniform, round - oval yellow - green color with a blurred pink blush. The skin on the fruit is thin and elastic. The pulp is creamy in color, medium in density, juicy and aromatic. Ripen in the second half of September.
To get colored fruits, the gardener needs to monitor the formation of ovaries and flowers, and pre-harvest spraying of the foliage with fluorine-containing solutions. The crown is oval, formed by skeletal branches.
Pruning trees is essential to stimulate the growth of young shoots and increase yields. To get good fruit when molding a Champion, you must use all the methods used when pruning apple trees.
Among the diseases that trees are susceptible to, the most famous is considered to be bitter pitting. The best method of dealing with it is feeding (8-10 times) with calcium preparations on the leaves. This treatment preserves the benefits.
Storing apples of this kind is difficult. In order for them to be stored for a long time, it is necessary to observe the terms for removing fruits from trees.
Brightly colored ones ripen 3 - 5 days faster than slightly colored ones. It is recommended to store them on an industrial scale in refrigerators at a temperature of 1-1.5 degrees.
Characteristics of the Gala variety
The variety was bred in New Zealand in 1957, and initially did not really like the breeders: the fruit turned out to be too pale and small in size. But this problem was quickly solved through numerous mutations and the appearance of brightly colored fruits.
They took Kids Orange and Golden Delicious as the basis.
Gala is famous for its high yields and frost resistance. The trees are not tall, have a wide, not very dense, rounded crown. Both annual and perennial shoots bear fruit, and apple trees begin to bloom late - at the very end of spring.
It belongs to the partially humidified apple trees, and therefore, for the best fruiting, it is recommended to plant nearby trees of the Elvira, James Grieve and others varieties.
The fruit is medium in size (about 150 g), round, slightly elongated, yellow in color with a bright orange-red blush. The ribbing on the surface is almost absent, there is slightly on the top of the fruit. The pulp is very juicy, sour - sweet, firm, with a caramel flavor.
Fruits are versatile: suitable for culinary purposes, processing and fresh consumption. They ripen late, from the end of September to November, but at the same time they are stored for more than 90 - 100 days and have an average indicator of transportability.
Medium-hardy species that can withstand frosts down to -30 degrees and is resistant to scab and powdery mildew. Of the diseases, he is prone to monoliosis.
It has many subspecies, the most common of which are:
- Royal Gala;
- Gala Mast;
- Scarlet and Red Gala;
Fruiting occurs at 6 - 7 years for ordinary subspecies, and at 3 - 4 for dwarf ones. Fruiting is regular, annual, but over time, the rates may decrease.
Controlling the number of ovaries and flowers will help to cope with this problem: a slight decrease in the volume of the crop leads to an improvement in its quality.
Apple tree seedlings from Poland
On the territory of the country, large companies - giants and small farms grow not only fruits for sale, but also seedlings. Poland is under the softening effect of the Gulf Stream: warm winters up to -5 degrees and not hot summers up to +30 degrees with high humidity, no sudden temperature fluctuations and long spring frosts.
Such conditions are ideal for growing red species, and therefore all seedlings are exclusively red varieties. The selection in the country is at a high level, and every 4 - 5 years new, improved and more intensive varieties appear on the market that meet all European quality requirements.
Before planting a garden, Polish entrepreneurs always follow the crop rotation and choose the right predecessor, cultivate the soil well and apply mineral and organic fertilizers.
The main positive aspects of Polish apple seedlings:
- Healthy, strong seedlings.
- High productivity.
- They take root well.
- Fruiting for 3-4 years.
- They often have resistance to various diseases.
Poland is the undisputed leader in the number of apples exported worldwide. Adherence to agricultural techniques, the use of the latest agricultural technologies, the cultivation of the best varieties of apple trees, an established system of transportation and marketing of products in Poland allows us to enjoy the wonderful taste of Polish fruits all year round and replenish the supply of vitamins in the body.
More detailed information about Champion apples - when watching the video: