Admiration, delight, awe, deepest reverence - such emotions can be felt being near a long-lived tree. Trees are long-livers, names and age, pictures, facts - more on this later in the article.
- About trees
- Life span
- Long-liver oak tree - name and age
- The oldest trees on Earth
- Oldest clonal groves
- Fruit centenarians
A tree is a plant that has a tree-covered trunk that persists throughout its life. Scientists suggest that they evolved from algae that came out to the coastal zone.
They put down roots to gain a foothold on the surface. The environment was aggressive, and living organisms tried to defend themselves by forming a solid surface layer. Wood became such a layer, moreover, it maintained their constant shape.
In the future, trees became the impetus for the development of many other life forms. They changed the Earth's atmosphere, the composition of the soil, and influenced the climate. The modern world has become what it is now, largely thanks to these plants.
Currently, their number on Earth exceeds 3 trillion copies, they are subdivided into 60 thousand species. They grow on any soil, even on rocky slopes, in the desert, on permafrost, only they are not in Antarctica.
Mangrove forests grow in the high tide zone, in salt water, and about 40% of the time they are submerged.
In the desert of Bahrain, a mesquite tree grows, around which there are no longer large plants for many miles, it is only thanks to its strong root system that it is able to live in such harsh conditions.
Every year 50 thousand tourists visit this place. Locals call it the Tree of Life and say that this particular place used to be the Garden of Eden.
In New Zealand, at the southernmost point at Slope Point, the strongest cold Antarctic winds blow all the time. A small group of conifers grows in these places, due to constant winds they are always inclined to the north. They adapted to grow not upward, but sideways, so that at least part of the branches was protected from the drying, piercing wind.
The variety of these flora representatives is amazing: the dwarf willow is considered the smallest - about 6 cm, and the sequoia is the tallest. Today, the tallest sequoia grows in the state of California, its height is 115.61 meters.
The fastest growing is Paulownia, it can grow by 4 meters in a year! But the White Cedar has grown by only 10 cm in 155 years. Edible Dion also grows very slowly - only 0.76 mm in a year.
The lifespan depends on many factors, but the maximum lifespan depends on the species. The most short-lived are fruit, quince lives on average 50-70 years, gray alder lives on average 40-70 years, rarely reaches the age of 100 years. Most birches live 100-110 years, but some can live up to 300 years. Long-livers are conifers, oaks, chestnuts, cypress and many more representatives.
Trees have the hardest time in the subarctic zone - cold summers, severe winters, swampy conditions, permafrost. They grow up short and do not differ in longevity. In the temperate zone, there is already a greater variety of vegetation due to the warmer climate.
Some representatives of the temperate zone, which are distinguished by longevity:
- Oak, maple, beech - the average lifespan of these plants is 300-500 years
- Spruce - 300-350 years old
- Pine - up to 600 years
- Larch - 500-900 years old
Some representatives of the oak genus do not shed their leaves seasonally, but change them gradually, while remaining evergreen. Some species are distinguished by longevity, some individuals are considered a tourist attraction and are under protection.
Warmer climatic zones also have long-lived plants, such as cypress. These evergreens can live for over a thousand years, the most famous of which is the Zoroastrian sarv, which has lived for over 4000 years.
Long-lived oak tree - name and age
An oak is a mighty giant, firmly connected to the earth; next to this living creature, you can feel its strength, energy. Many legends are associated with them, they are deeply revered where they grow.
Here are some of the most famous ones.
The Mamre oak, also known as the Oak of Abraham, is considered sacred, the Bible says that it was near this oak that Abraham had a revelation about the Holy Trinity. According to legend, as long as this oak is alive, the end of the world will not come. Its age is estimated at 5,000 years, but in 1997 it still dried up, and tourists helped it with this, taking its parts with them as talismans. Fortunately, a year later, a new shoot appeared from the roots.
The Palmer bush oak colony in the Jurupa Valley (USA, California), according to scientists, began its existence 13 thousand years ago. Some researchers claim that the colony of these oak trees survived the last ice age.
Stelmuzhsky oak is one of the oldest European oak trees; according to various sources, the age ranges from one thousand to two thousand years. In 1916, he underwent a recovery operation: they cleaned out the rot from the inside, cut a hollow, and fenced it off.
Chapel oak in France. Inside the oak in 1669, two chapels were made, which are still accessible to the public today. The age of this oak is estimated at 1200 years.
For clarity, you can see photos of trees of centenarians, the names and ages of which were listed.
The oldest trees on Earth
These plants are the longest living creatures on our planet. Some of the living people rushed to the sun even in the days when there were no Egyptian pyramids. The oldest living tree today is the bristlecone pine, whose name is Mufasail. It grows in the eastern part of California in a national park, but the specific location is hidden from strangers, only the park staff know where it grows.
According to scientists, the approximate time when the seed of this pine began its truly long life path is considered to be 2831 BC (in 2017, the pine tree turned 4847 years old!). There are many pines in the park, which are a thousand years old, it is surprising that the conditions there are not the most pleasant: very little rainfall, poor soil, dry air.
These long-lived pines have adapted to difficulties, the needles of these amazing creatures alone do not change for 20-30 years. This significantly saves supplies and energy. Constant photosynthesis ensures a normal existence in such a harsh climate.
When some areas are damaged, they die off, but the disease does not spread further, the untouched part continues to live its own life. Pine wood is very dense, with a lot of resin, because of this, pathogenic microbes, fungi and insect pests cannot get close to it.
Additionally, dry air protects the pine trees from rotting. Old-timers prefer open spaces where everyone has enough sun and moisture. This location also prevents the spread of forest fires. Even after death, the pine tree can stand for about a hundred years until the roots begin to rot or the soil collapses.
In the same California, in the Sequoia National Park, the General Sherman sequoia grows. Its age is 2,700 years, in addition to such a venerable age, it also differs in other parameters: height 84 meters, girth at the ground - 31 meters, and it is still growing, increasing the girth annually by 1.5 cm. Next to such a giant, you understand who is actually the master of the planet Earth.
General Sherman is open to tourists, near him is a sign that says that 40 houses can be built from this sequoia, and that it is much longer than a passenger train.
Baobabs grow in Africa, they do not have tree rings, so it is difficult to determine the age. Using the method of radiocarbon analysis, scientists claim that some individuals have lived for more than 4,500 years.
The legend associated with these plants says that the baobab still did not like the place that God chose for him, and he got angry and planted it upside down, after which the baobab began to grow and did not ask for a new place any more.
Dragon trees also do not form annual rings; age is determined roughly by growth rates. Usually these plants are 20 meters in height, at the base with a diameter of 4 meters and can live for 5-7 thousand years.
Oldest clonal groves
A clonal colony is a group of genetically identical organisms that evolved from one common ancestor, or we can say that it is one organism that has split into many parts during the growth process. Clonal trees are long-livers - names and ages.
One such organism is Pando Grove, in Utah, USA. The aspen-shaped poplar grows and dies in this grove, this cycle takes about 130 years, a new shoot appears in its place, and this process has not stopped for at least 80 thousand years.
At the time of the birth of Pando, states did not yet exist, people had just begun to settle on the continents. Whole civilizations were born and died, religions arose, then they died out, a huge number of inventions, discoveries were made by man, comprehended the world around him, studied and studies the universe, and Pando all this three continuously lives and develops.
In Sweden, Tikko spruce grows from roots, which, according to radiocarbon analysis, are more than 9500 years old, it is a clone of an old dead plant. Young overgrown several hundred years, but its roots found those times that are even difficult to imagine.
Olives and chestnuts are considered the oldest among fruit livers. One of the famous representatives of chestnuts is the Chestnut of a Hundred Horses. It is a landmark of Sicily, scientists consider it the oldest, in addition, it is included in the Guinness Book of Records, due to the largest barrel girth, in 1780 this figure was 58 meters, now the barrel is divided into three parts.
One of the oldest olives in Spain is known as Farga de Arion, it is about 1701, older specimens are also known: Oliva Vouves. This specimen grows on the island of Crete, the exact age is difficult to establish, because the core has rotted, but this figure is at least 2000 years old.
Although most of the centenarians are protected, the number of forests is decreasing every year due to human activities. Forests have suffered especially strongly from humans for the last 200 years. In developed countries, deforestation is tightly controlled or even prohibited.
A forest is a unique ecosystem; there will be no forest, and there will be no life. Love and take care of nature, it gave us life.
What are the oldest trees on Earth, where do they grow, how many trees usually live, how some manage to live for more than a thousand years, about everything in more detail - in the video: