The Jacaranda mimosifolia or wisteria tree is a tree up to 10-12 m high originating from South America; to the genus jacaranda belong about fifty trees or shrubs originating in Central and South America, many cultivated in Australia. It has an erect habit, with dense and rounded crown, as wide as the height of the tree; the bark is dark and smooth; the leaves are bright green, bipinnate, similar to those of the mimosa. In late spring it produces many apical clusters of trumpet-shaped flowers, about 5-6 cm long, blue-violet in color, which give the plant a very decorative appearance. In autumn it produces long leathery pods that contain numerous dark seeds.
This type of plants is used for ornamental purposes, thanks to the beauty and particularity of its flowering, which makes it perfect for coloring gardens and parks.
The Jacaranda mimosifolia grows without problems in any position, preferring sunny and well-ventilated places; generally it does not fear temperatures close to 0 ° C, even if the young plants are to be repaired for at least two winters from planting. Long periods of intense frost can ruin the tips of the branches, which are restored without problems by pruning the frozen parts. In case of cold temperatures it is good to repair the plant in a protected place, or to use mulching material at the base, to protect the root system.
JACARANDA MIMOSIFOLIA IN BRIEF
Family, genus, species: Bignoniaceae, Jacaranda, about 50 species
Plant type: Medium-sized tree
Foliage: are semi
Height at maturity: More than 10 meters
Dimeter at maturity: About 6 meters
maintenance: Low and easy
Cold resistance: Up to -7, sheltered from cold winds
Exposure: Full sun or slight shade (in the South)
Ground: not demanding, ideal fresh but with good drainage
irrigation: Initially frequent, then rare
Environmental humidity: Medium-high
Container: Deep at least 30 cm, excellent drainage
Height: Up to 50 cm
Flowers: Blue or white, collected in hanging panels
Propagation: Sowing, apical cutting
Use: Isolated specimen, avenues, groups, large vase
As for the correct supply of water to the wisteria tree it is good to regularly water the young plants; adult specimens usually do not need watering, except in the case of long periods of drought; in winter suspend watering, dry winters seem to favor more abundant blooms.
The plants of Jacaranda mimosifolia prefer loose soils, very well drained and fertile, they fear very moist and too compact soils. In autumn and early spring, at the foot of the plant bury the mature organic fertilizer to provide the correct nourishment and promote the regular growth of the wisteria tree. Check that water does not form in the soil, which could compromise the health of the specimens and lead to radical rot.
The multiplication of the wisteria tree can take place by seed or cuttings; both methods are recommended, since the plant grows fairly quickly and does not take too many years to obtain a small plant from the seed. For the first two to three years the new plants must be grown in a temperate container before being planted, so as to allow them to acquire the necessary strength to withstand transplantation without problems.
Another reason to include Jacaranda in the garden is its good resistance to adversity. There are very few parasites that attack it and it is also resistant to less experienced gardeners.It is only necessary to pay attention, during the first years, to the winter cold, especially if we live in the Center-North: in the first years after planting we try to protect the trunk with insulating material and the foliage with a double layer of special fabric. We always choose warm locations and sheltered from the winds.More delicate are the potted plants that should be repaired in the greenhouse as early as November. We pay attention even in summer, when the heat and the dry atmosphere can attract the red spider. To prevent the onset, we spray the hair several times a day and keep the humidity as high as possible.Jacaranda propagation
It multiplies very easily both from seed and from cuttings; it is worth trying both ways because, given its fast growth, it will certainly give us satisfaction.
It can start from mid-spring. To obtain a fast germination it is useful to place them in warm water for at least one night. Afterwards we will place them in jars of about 8 cm in diameter, at a depth of 2 cm. The ideal soil must be light, but able to remain moist for a long time: we choose a special product or mix universal soil with vermiculite. We keep everything at about 25 ° C in a well-lit room. Germination occurs in about 20 days, but the seedlings can be transferred to larger pots already from autumn.
Apical portions about 15 cm long are taken in mid-autumn. They are placed in a mixture of peat and perlite (or sand) in equal parts. We cover with a plastic bag and always keep moist by spraying often, but airing daily. We keep in a bright area, but without direct sun at about 23 ° C until it begins to vegetate. Later we can move in full sun and repot before the arrival of winter. In spring we will cover the branches several times to induce a good bunching.
Jacaranda - Jacaranda mimosifolia: Species and variety
The Jacaranda genus includes about 50 species of small trees, but the interesting ones at horticultural level are essentially two: the mimosifolia and the obtusifolia.
Jacaranda Mimosifolia It is a tree that can reach 20 meters in height with beautiful bipinnate foliage. At the end of spring it produces abundant panels composed of flowers between blue and lilac, on the branches still without leaves. Extremely easy to grow, very decorative and very fast growing essence, suitable for all regions with not too cold winters: once grown it easily tolerates up to -7 ° C.
Several cultivars are available. Interesting the "Alba" with snow-white pannicoli. Flowering is less abundant, but more lasting than in the species.
In recent years, cultivars have also been developed with slower growth and smaller dimensions, but have not yet arrived in our country: they would be suitable for small gardens, for growing in pots and for creating bonsai.
Jacaranda obtusifolia the single leaflets are larger while the flowers, mauve, are smaller. This species is widespread as an ornamental tree in Southeast Asia, particularly in India. It is also sought after for its yellow-colored wood, easy to work and with a fine grain. It gives off a pleasant scent, similar to that of roses.