Also

Self-cultivation of mushrooms as a business with minimal investment


Consumer demand for mushroom products is growing steadily every year. This is due to the fact that mushrooms are not only tasty, but also a healthy food product.

Even in ancient Greece and Rome, mushrooms were considered the food of the gods. The first attempts to grow champignons in Europe fell on the 17th century, continued in the 18th century, and already in the 19th century mushroom cultivation went on an industrial basis in many countries, including Russia.

Nowadays, mushroom farming is popular in various countries. Despite the fact that many people give preference to collecting forest mushrooms, growing mushrooms as a business throughout the year can bring a good income. We will try to understand some of the features of growing mushrooms for sale with minimal investment.

Content:

  • Mushroom growing, types of mushrooms suitable for cultivation
  • Room and substrate for growing mushrooms
  • Recipe for self-cooking substrate

Mushroom growing, types of mushrooms suitable for cultivation

Modern mushroom cultivation has become an independent branch of the economy. Mushrooms are grown not only on an industrial scale. There is also small-scale amateur cultivation of mushrooms for sale to the population. Industrial production can be divided into two areas.

Some businesses produce the mycelium needed to produce the fruit of the bodies, or what consumers call mushrooms. Other businesses specialize in the cultivation of the fruiting bodies of edible mushrooms. All mushrooms that can be grown on their own can be divided:

  • for saprophytes grown on organic substrates
  • on mycorrhizal, developing in the presence of certain tree species

Saprophytic mushrooms that give a good harvest of fruiting bodies in artificially created conditions include:

  • shiitaki
  • oyster mushrooms
  • Champignon
  • auricularia

Mycorrhizal fungi include:

  • truffle
  • boletus
  • mushroom
  • porcini
  • boletus

When choosing mushroom cultivation as a business, one should take into account the fact that mycorrhizal mushrooms are most conveniently grown in the open air, therefore, the period of their cultivation coincides with the collection of wild-growing edible mushrooms. Thus, consumer demand for mushroom products in summer and autumn will be reduced.

In addition, many mycorrhizal fungi require a significant area with certain types of trees. Therefore, for small-scale production of mushrooms in order to sell them to the population, it is better to opt for the cultivation of saprophytic mushrooms.

Room and substrate for growing mushrooms

For the production of mushrooms, you need to choose a special room suitable for their cultivation throughout the year. Once the French bred mushrooms in old quarries in the suburbs of Paris, and Russian landowners built special premises - mushrooms.

Taking into account the fact that certain investments are still required to organize a mushroom business, it is most profitable at the first stage to use a ready-made room. For these purposes, any building with electricity and water supply is suitable.

This is necessary to maintain temperature, humidity, hygiene and ventilation. Experts believe that the room temperature should not be below 12 degrees and above 20.

It is desirable to maintain the temperature of the soil or substrate at + 17 degrees. The optimum humidity should be at 85%; temporary deviations of 5% in the direction of increasing or decreasing are permissible.

The room should be equipped with ventilation, giving an influx of fresh air of about 2 cubic meters. m per 1 sq. m of area per hour. As a rule, the premises of the former are suitable for re-equipment for growing mushrooms throughout the year:

  • livestock farms
  • garages
  • vegetable stores
  • basements
  • heated greenhouses

If mushroom growing is planned as a family business and does not provide for additional costs for the salaries of the involved personnel, then three to four people are able to ensure the uninterrupted process of mushroom growing on an area of ‚Äč‚Äčabout 200 square meters. m.

Video on how to grow mushrooms at home for sale:

To get a harvest of the fruiting bodies of mushrooms, you need to take care of a special nutrient substrate for the development of the mycelium. Indeed, without its successful nutrition and growth, it is impossible to grow edible mushrooms. The most inexpensive and most popular substrates for mushroom cultivation are:

  • straw of cereals, wheat, oats or rye, it is suitable for many fungi - saprophytes, however, it is easily affected by mold
  • sawdust, best suited sawdust of oak, birch, willow, ash and fruit trees, they are mixed with bran to increase their nutritional properties
  • compost and organic debris such as seed husks, corn cobs, leaves;
  • paper and cardboard waste

Important! It is desirable that the acquired mycelium and substrate match each other. Currently, the industry has mastered the production of special blocks. Most often these are the so-called mushroom bags. Sometimes they are not only filled with a substrate, but are already inhabited by mycelium.

Producers promise up to four kg of mushrooms from one 10 kg block within 2 months. You can buy blocks for growing the same mushrooms, which are not only inhabited by mycelium, but also passed the incubation stage. Such blocks save a lot of time, but they are quite expensive.

For one block, you will have to pay about 500 rubles. Therefore, if growing mushrooms should be profitable, then it is still better to prepare the substrate yourself.

Recipe for self-preparation of the substrate

It is better to start preparing the substrate with your own hands in spring - autumn. Would need:

  • straw 70-80 kg
  • hay or leaves 20 - 30 kg
  • poultry droppings 80 kg
  • gypsum 6 kg

In the event that poultry manure is not available, fresh horse or cow manure can be taken. Two to three days before preparing the composting mixture, the straw should be soaked in water. After that, straw and manure are placed in layers in a compost pit or a special composter.

You should get three to four layers. Every three to four days, the contents are mixed and moistened. The fermentation process ends in about 25 days. The finished substrate should have a dark brown color, be moderately crumbly and lose the smell of ammonia.

The yield of the finished substrate is about 250 kg. To grow mushrooms, it remains to fill them with special containers, install them in a prepared room, purchase mycelium, populate a substrate with it and, observing all the necessary conditions, grow mushrooms for sale.

Before starting a family business of growing mushrooms, it is worth examining the consumer demand for these products. Perhaps, instead of champignons and oyster mushrooms, it is worth thinking about growing shiitake, which in Asia are considered medicinal mushrooms or rare gourmet real truffles.


Watch the video: How to grow your own Mushrooms at home. (December 2021).