Apples are the fruits of the apple tree of the same name from the Rosaceae family. The guarantee of a good harvest begins with the selection of an assortment for a specific region.
Sweet varieties with good commercial qualities are the most popular among the population. The sugar content of apples depends primarily on the ratio of the amount of sugars and organic acids. Despite the fact that this ratio is provided by the varietal characteristics, the weather and the quality of plant care can significantly affect the taste. Consider varietal sweet-tasting apple trees.
- Sweet early apples
- The sweetest autumn apples
- The sweetest apples of winter ripening
Sweet early apples
The fruits of summer apple trees can be eaten from the second half of July to the beginning of August. Their main advantage is early ripeness and good taste. Although the sugar content in summer apples is much more modest than in later apples. Early apples are eaten primarily fresh. They are not subject to long-term storage. They are difficult to keep fresh for longer than 14 days after harvest. The following early varieties are considered some of the sweetest:
- White filling
- Early sweet
- Memory of Lavrik
- Grushovka Moscow
Variety "White filling
An old Russian popular variety of summer apples. Apple trees of this variety are distinguished by their early maturity. The first crop is harvested in the sixth year. Young apple trees have larger fruits. Their weight is 100 - 120 grams. As the tree matures, the size of the fruit decreases and rarely exceeds 60 - 80 grams.
The color is green; when fully ripe, the apples become almost white and transparent. On the south side, the fruit may have a slight blush. The apples are round, slightly tapering towards the calyx. They have a deep and wide funnel. It has a pronounced "rustiness". In mature plants, the fruits are more rounded.
May have a thin leather fold seam. The leg is long, the skin is thin. The taste is sweet with some sourness. The sugar content in fruits is high, reaching 8% - 9%. Harvesting of apples of this variety is carried out in two stages. The first harvest is done in early August, the second after August 20.
Apples that have fallen from a tree cannot be stored or transported, fruits removed from a tree require careful handling, since their skin becomes covered with dark spots even with light pressure. Apple trees are highly frost-resistant and the variety has not lost its popularity for many years due to its excellent taste and attractive appearance.
The disadvantage of the variety is the frequency of fruiting. The Papirovka apples are very similar to the White filling, but they ripen a little earlier and have larger fruits. The disadvantages of the variety include mediocre winter hardiness.
It should be noted that the variety was later bred from the parental forms of Papirovka and Bellefleur of the Chinese "Memory of Lavrik". It surpasses the parents in fruit taste and size. Also, unlike "White filling" and "Papirovka" apples of this variety are more mature. By the end of summer - beginning of autumn, it is time to harvest apples of autumn varieties.
The sweetest autumn apples
In terms of sugar content, autumn apples, as a rule, surpass summer varieties. Among the autumn varieties, there are many in which the sugar content is not only higher than 9%, but also higher than 10-11%. The sweetest varieties include:
- Bessemyanka Michurinskaya
Work on the variety began in the second half of the last century. Bessemyanka Michurinskaya and Mekintosh served as parental forms for the variety. Tests of the variety were carried out in 1970. The authors of the variety were T. Trofimov and E. Sedov. The variety is recommended for cultivation in the northern, central, western regions.
The fruits of the "Orlik" variety are conical, slightly flattened. The skin has a well-defined waxy coating. Apples are most often green, at the stage of full maturity they turn yellow. They have a bright red blush all over the surface. Subcutaneous gray dots are clearly visible. The peduncle is short, strong, the funnel is shallow. Apples have excellent taste.
This is due to the fact that the fruits contain a lot of sugars and a small amount of organic acids. The sugar content is 11%, and the acid content is 3.5%. In addition, the fruits have beneficial properties due to pectin substances, which are more than 12% in them.
Harvesting begins after September 10th. The fruits can be eaten immediately after they are removed from the tree. Stored very well until the end of January without loss of marketability. The advantages of the variety include yield, excellent sweet taste, high winter hardiness, early maturity. The disadvantages of the variety are, first of all, the tendency to periodicity of fruiting and shedding of fruits.
The sweetest apples of winter ripening
The ratio of the amount of organic acids to the amount of sugars is responsible for the sweet taste of apples. This ratio is called the sugar-acid ratio. Also, a high amount of dry matter has a positive effect on their taste. According to these indicators, winter varieties are superior to both summer and autumn apples.
This is primarily due to the fact that apples of these varieties are on the branch for the longest time and manage to accumulate the maximum amount of sugar and dry matter. In addition, the high tannin content can impart a more tart flavor to the fruit. The sweetest varieties of late ripening include:
- In memory of Michurin
- Winter lungwort
- Sinap north
- Sinap Orlovsky
- Antonovka dessert
Variety "In Memory of Michurin"
The author of the variety is S. Isaev. The Chinese variety Champanrene was taken as a basis. The fruits are of medium size. Their average weight is about 130 - 140 g. The apples are conical. They also have wide ribs. Green - yellow or golden color is the main one. On top of it, the apples have a bright red blush. Darker streaks and streaks are clearly visible on it. Fine-grained pulp, white or creamy.
The high sugar content, above 12%, gives an excellent taste to the apple. Acids in it are about 5%. Harvesting begins in the last days of September. It is best to eat fresh from the end of October. The fruits have an excellent presentation, withstand well transportation over long distances and are stored almost until May.
The sugar content allows processing the fruits of this variety into juices, jams. The advantages of "Memory Michurin" apple trees are excellent drought resistance and good frost resistance. The trees are fast-growing. Fruiting already from the fifth of the year. The plant is scab resistant. It is also worth noting the very long shelf life and fresh consumption of the fruit. The disadvantages of the variety are the tendency to periodic fruiting and crown growth.
Variety "Sinap North"
This variety was bred on the basis of the works of I. Michurin. On the basis of the typical southern variety "Kandil Sinap" and the variety "Kitayka", he obtained the frost-resistant variety for the temperate climate "Kandil Kitayka". Then the work was continued by the breeder S. Isaev.
It was he who managed to get the variety, which he named "Northern Sinap". The sugar content in fruits is higher than 11%, and the acid content is only about 5%. Apples surpass even Crimean synapses in taste. In addition, they have exceptional keeping quality. They can be stored until June. The fruits are elongated.
The color is green with a red blush. The variety has become the main competitor of Antonovka. The disadvantage of this variety is the reduction of sugar up to 9% in unfavorable weather. When choosing sweet varieties for the garden, you need to remember that all varietal qualities of an apple tree are manifested with good care and adherence to agricultural technology.
Videos about various winter sweet varieties: