Tomatoes are a vegetable crop that can be safely considered one of the five leaders in garden plants. Tomatoes differ not only in shape, size, color, ripening time, but also in the shape of the bush.
There are plants with a length of shoots that resemble small trees, and there are short ones with compact bushes. It turns out that if the growth of shoots does not stop, and is not limited to the laying of a flower brush, then such varieties of tomatoes are called indeterminate. If the shoots are of moderate length, their growth is limited, then we have a determinant tomato variety.
- General description of determinant tomato varieties
- Benefits of a tomato with limited shoot growth
- Features of growing determinant tomatoes
General description of determinant tomato varieties
Studying the package with tomato seeds and seeing the term determinant variety, you should know that as soon as a flower brush forms at the top of the shoot, the growth of the shoot in height stops. Further, the growth of the strongest shoot, the stepson, begins, until an apical brush appears on it. It is important to know! That there are varieties with unlimited growth in which the total shoot length is quite modest. Already at an early stage of development, you can notice a difference in the appearance of tomato seedlings with limited growth.
At the beginning of growth, already on the third - fourth day, when the first two cotyledonous leaves are straightened, the height of the stem from the ground to the leaves rarely exceeds 3 cm, while in plants with unlimited growth this distance reaches 5 - 6 cm.
As soon as the sixth true leaf, sometimes the seventh, appears on the plant, the first flower brush is laid. Sometimes this happens even before the fifth leaf appears. In addition, tomatoes with limited growth between adjacent clusters always have less than three leaves. Among the varieties with limited growth, several groups can be conditionally distinguished:
- determinant, brushes strictly through three leaves, shoot growth ends after 6 brushes
- semi-determinant, the average number of leaves between the clusters is 2 - 2.5, the growth stops after 12 clusters
- superdeterminate, characterized by early maturity, brushes after 1 - 2 leaves, after the fifth brush, growth stops
- super-super-determinant, varieties are both super-dwarf and super early ripening, form brushes in a row, without missing leaves, usually there are 3 such brushes, the first brush after the fifth leaf, following through the leaf, growth stops after 3 - 4 flower brushes, they manage to harvest before unfavorable conditions. This limited shoot growth has both advantages and disadvantages.
Benefits of a tomato with limited shoot growth
On the one hand, it may seem that tomatoes with unlimited growth have more advantages than those with limited growth. At first glance, the longer the shoots are, the more they yield. This is indeed the case. But after all, more time is needed for such growth. Consequently, the setting and ripening of the crop on such a plant will occur later.
In addition, such varieties of tomatoes cannot be grown without fixing them on a trellis. If you leave the shoots of unlimited growth without a garter, then you can hardly get a full harvest. However, when grown in greenhouses, in a limited area, tall varieties with unlimited growth show all their best qualities. Therefore, for open ground, determinate tomatoes are sometimes preferable.
The undoubted advantages of determinant varieties are:
- early maturity
- early dates for bookmarking flower brushes
- the first fruits take less time to ripen
- good volumes of the first harvest
- Simultaneous bookmarking of several brushes
- friendly return of the harvest
- cultivation without trellis
However, these tomatoes also have minor disadvantages:
- sometimes inferior in overall yield
- the number of brushes requires high fertility and fertilization
- regular removal of stepchildren is necessary
- due to the load of ovaries, the tolerance to diseases decreases
To reduce the disadvantages of tomatoes with limited growth to a minimum and allow their advantages to fully manifest themselves, you need to master some techniques for growing them.
Features of growing determinant tomatoes
The agrotechnology of growing determinant tomatoes is not particularly difficult. After planting seedlings in the ground, it is important to organize feeding the plants with complex fertilizers containing phosphorus and potassium. The first feeding is carried out 14 days after planting.
It is possible to grow tomatoes with limited growth without much zeal to remove stepchildren. However, transferring the growing point to the lateral shoot prolongs the fruiting period. On the issue of the formation of bushes, the opinions of gardeners differ, it is noticed that when formed in one stem on tomatoes with limited growth, an early, but small crop is formed. When growing bushes without a formation procedure at all, the crop ripens three to four weeks later, but the abundance differs.
Therefore, it is optimal to grow a plant in two trunks with a moderate shaping of the bush. The rest of the cultivation and care is usual:
- rare but abundant watering
If the choice is made in favor of a tomato with limited shoot growth, then the following varieties should be considered:
- Eternal call - it is distinguished by very large fruits, the height of the shoots is 0.7 m, early.
- Siberian troika - medium ripening, height of the bushes 0.6 m, elongated, fleshy fruits.
- Askold - the variety does not need to remove stepchildren and grows without forming a bush, the fruits are slightly flattened, ribbed, weight 65 g.
- Granddaughter is a standard variety, determinant, early, small-fruited, fruit weight 20 g.
- Summit - powerful bushes, height 0.8 m, medium term with pink fruits.
In order to master all the wisdom of growing tomatoes and draw the right conclusions about their merits, it is worth planting varieties on plots with both limited shoot growth and unlimited shoot growth.
Video about determinant tomatoes: