Successful grape cultivation is traditionally considered possible only in regions with a warm climate and a large number of hot and sunny days. Although almost two centuries ago, monks on the very northern and cold island of Valaam mastered viticulture and cultivated this thermophilic plant along a stone wall so that when heated from the sun, the stones would give the plant their heat.
Over time, breeders have developed varieties suitable for cultivation in regions with moderately warm summer weather and frosty winters. Northern Saperavi grapes can be classified as such.
- Description of the saperavi northern grape variety
- Features of planting northern saperavi in the garden
- North Saperavi grape care
Description of the saperavi northern grape variety
Perhaps someone has come across a red Georgian wine "Saperavi" on sale, and so, it is produced from the technical variety of Georgian Saperavi grapes. Its berries are distinguished not only by their dark skin, but also by their dark red flesh. Due to this, the wine turns out to be so rich in color that the saperavi was used as a dyer variety.
On the basis of the Georgian saperavi, the northern saperavi variety was obtained after the war. It is believed that the variety appeared in 1947, although 1958 is considered the year of official recognition. Potapenko I.P., Potapenko Ya. I., Zakharova E.I. The berries of the new variety received from the parental form the same rich, dark blue, with a waxy coating, skin and colored dark pink juice.
In addition, breeders used the second parental form, the Severny variety, so named because Amur grapes were used in its breeding, a plant that is endemic to the Ussuri taiga. The Saperavi northern variety got its hardiness from the second parental form.
The berries are collected in a conical bunch with branches. The average weight of bunches is up to 110 g. The size of the berries for a technical variety is quite large. If we weigh 100 berries of the Northern Saperavi variety, then their weight will be 125 grams. The shape of the berries is oval, the number of seeds in the berry is 2 - 3. The taste is harmonious, the sugar content ranges from 20 to 25 g. The amount of acid is from 6 to 11.3 g / l.
Northern Saperavi belongs to the medium - technical, late varieties. Ripening of the crop occurs after 140 days from the beginning of opening of the eyes or, as they sometimes say, wintering buds. In most regions, the harvesting of berries in technical ripeness begins in the second half of September.
Some features of the Saperavi North variety should be noted:
- resistant to mildew, gray rot only if agricultural technology is followed
- resistant to frost, withstands without shelter up to - 23
- leaves are very often whole or slightly dissected
- in autumn the leaves turn wine-red
- drought tolerance below average
- excellent yield, from 72 to 115 kg / ha
- left on the vine after ripening, does not crumble or deteriorate up to 30 days
The northern saperavi harvest is recommended for the production of juices, most often as part of several varieties and table wines. In 1964, the production of a wine called "Quiet Don" was launched from the northern saperavi variety. The wine belonged to dessert, had a beautiful ruby color and harmonious taste.
The berries were harvested when sugar was set above 20 g. In 1965 and 1968, it received gold and silver medals at international exhibitions, respectively. The wine was ordinary, after 4-6 months it was bottled and sold. Now the variety is popular in the production of home-made wine. We will try to figure out how to plant this variety in the garden.
Features of planting northern saperavi in the garden
In general, the northern saperavi variety is recommended for cultivation in the North Caucasus, Krasnodar Territory, and Rostov Region. However, he gradually mastered more northern territories. According to reviews, it winters well without shelter, even if the winter frosts reach -30. Although, of course, in the middle lane and further north it is advisable to grow with shelter for the winter.
Video about northern grapes:
Northern Saperavi is undemanding to the quality of the soil, but it is best to plant it in damp places or where it is possible to organize additional watering. It is advisable to choose a small slope, with an orientation to the south, southeast, southwest and protection from the wind. Any structure, fence, plantings of tall trees will successfully cope with this role.
Planting grapes, like any shrub or fruit tree, begins with the preparation of the planting pit. If the shape of the pit does not really matter, then the depth and width are very important. For northern saperavi, the size of the pit should be related to the size of the root system. There are seedlings of this variety, actually root, and there are grafted ones. Most often, vigorous varieties are used as stock. As a rule, a hole 0.8 m deep and the same diameter is sufficient. Taking into account the size of mature bushes, the distance between the pits should be at least 2.5 m, and between the rows at least 1.5 m.
Part of the upper soil is mixed with 1 - 2 buckets of humus, add 2 - 3 tbsp. l. potash and phosphorus fertilizers. If the soil is sandy, then you can add black soil, clay in the amount of 0.5 buckets.
The resulting mixture is poured onto the bottom and slightly pressed down, so that the remaining depth is sufficient for the roots. At least 1/3 of the mixture should be left to cover the roots from above. It is advisable to prepare the hole a couple of weeks before planting, but if this is done just before planting, then the soil must be well tamped. Depending on the climate, planting is carried out in autumn and spring.
When planting the northern saperavi in spring, you need to wait until the average daily temperature is not lower than + 10. If the seedling has well-developed heel roots, then it is better to cut them off and leave no more than 15-18 cm in length. Before planting, the seedling is kept in a solution of any root former for several hours. The seedling is placed in a hole, the soil left behind is poured out, leveled and tamped. From above, the pit is covered with the remaining earth. Pour a bucket of water and mulch with peat.
North Saperavi grape care
In dry summers, regular watering is required, the amount of water under the bush is at least 2-3 buckets. The trunk circle is mulched after watering. Despite the frost resistance indicated in the description, in the first 2 - 3 years the plant must be covered for the winter. Recommended to grow on a trellis, forming a multi-arm fan. This requires pruning shoots up to 6 eyes.
The optimal load on the northern saperavi bush is up to 30 - 35 shoots. A feature of the grapes is that they are not harvested on time, they do not crumble, but weighs a whole bunch for at least a month, after which they begin to wither. Although the variety is considered technical, when sugar is set up to 25% and with a minimum acid content of 6%, it is readily consumed fresh.