Cucumber season usually starts in April and ends in autumn. Growing this crop in a greenhouse practically does not differ from growing in an open field, however, you should know some agricultural techniques.
- Greenhouse cucumber varieties
- Greenhouse and soil preparation
- Seedling: planting and care
- Growing recommendations
Greenhouse cucumber varieties
In order for cucumbers to give a good harvest, it is necessary to create appropriate conditions for them. When choosing a variety, you should decide in what conditions cucumbers will be grown: in closed or open ground. For growing in greenhouse conditions, the most popular varieties are:
- Cupid F1
- Hercules F1
- Dynamite F1
- F1 calendar
- Courage F1
- Cheetah F1
- Pet F1
All of these varieties are hybrid. In the greenhouse, remember to do manual pollination. If this procedure is not followed, the cucumber ovary will fall off and there will be no harvest. The following varieties are chosen from shade-tolerant ones: Domashny, Marafinsky, Russian, Rykovsky, Arina F1, Marathon F1, Danila F1, etc.
Greenhouse and soil preparation
The winter greenhouse should be located on a flat area, a slight slope is allowed. It is desirable that the site is located on the south or southeast side. There should be a water source near the greenhouse for watering cucumbers. It is also necessary to consider the heating, lighting and automatic ventilation system. As a covering material for the greenhouse, polycarbonate, glass, and plastic wrap are used.
To grow a good crop in a greenhouse during the winter, it is important to properly prepare the soil. The earth must be dug up and disinfected with a solution of copper sulfate. This procedure is performed only if there were no landings on this site before. The soil should consist of turf and humus. To this mixture add one part of sawdust, a spoonful of nitrophoska and four tablespoons of ash.
Stir the soil mixture well, level it in the greenhouse and make beds out of it. Then add mineral fertilizers and tamp. Cover the beds with foil for 2-3 weeks. You can grow cucumbers through seedlings or seeds. Before sowing seeds for seedlings, they should be disinfected.
Take a teaspoon of nitrophosphate and dissolve in a liter of hot water. Then add 1/3 teaspoon of boric acid and copper sulfate. Mix the solution well and pour out the seeds. Leave in this state for 10 hours.
After this procedure, the seeds are hardened. To do this, take gauze, moisten in cold water, pour out the seeds, gently wrap and put in the refrigerator for a week. It is important to check the gauze from time to time. If it is dry, then moisten it again with water. After that, you can start sowing seeds for seedlings.
Can be sown in peat cups or in a container. Place the container on a windowsill or in another place where additional lighting is equipped. Seedlings will appear at temperatures above 25 degrees. Cover the container with a damp cloth to prevent the soil from drying out. Seedlings should be watered every 2 days. You can apply fertilizer - mullein solution 1: 6. Seed sowing is carried out with a conveyor every 2 weeks.
Seedling: planting in the ground and care
Planting in the greenhouse should be carried out in October, then the cucumbers can be harvested in December. You can plant seedlings immediately in pots one month after sowing the seeds. The distance between the seedlings should be approximately 20 cm, and the row spacing should be approximately 90-100 cm.
During the daytime, the temperature in the greenhouse should be in the range of 25-30 degrees. A thermometer will help with this.
The first feeding is performed with the appearance of 3-4 leaves. Further, the plant is fed with the appearance of flowers and after the ripening of the first fruits. As a top dressing, a solution of mullein or chicken droppings is used. Water the plants once every 5 days. With the appearance of fruits, the amount of watering is increased.
Caring for cucumbers in a greenhouse in winter involves loosening the soil and weeding the seedlings. It is important not to allow high humidity and heat in the greenhouse, as this will lead to the development of fungal diseases: anthracnose, brown spot, white rot.
In order for the stem to form correctly, pull the wire along the beds. The wire should be fastened at a height of 2-3 meters. As the plant grows, a garter is performed. If the variety is tall, then the stem is not tightly tied with twine and fixed on top. It is important to ensure that the twine is not too tight, as you can tear off the stem and pull out by the root.
Video on how to grow cucumbers in a greenhouse in winter:
Excess flowers, stepsons, yellowed leaves are removed. It is also necessary to pinch the side shoots. This procedure is first performed on the second sheet, and then carried out on the third. As a result, 3-4 leaves should remain on the stem. If parthenocarpic hybrids are grown, then stepsons and flowers are removed to a height of up to half a meter.
In this case, the female flowers are removed, and the next 5 leaves at the base are pinched over the first. Further, above the other 5 leaves, the stepsons do not remove up to a height of 1.5 meters. 3 ovaries are left above the second sheet. In order to avoid the appearance of fungal diseases, you should properly care for the plants, monitor the temperature and humidity in the greenhouse.
The inexperienced gardener may find it difficult to grow cucumbers in winter. The main problem is insufficient air humidity. Greenhouse heating takes up a lot of moisture, so it is necessary to humidify the air regularly. Cucumbers are thermophilic crops, therefore, in the greenhouse, you should always maintain optimal air humidity. To do this, you can spray plants, place barrels of water, etc.
Artificial lighting is essential when growing cucumbers. Daytime lamps are suspended, if the plant is not tall, at a height of 50 cm. In the future, the lamps are raised higher as the bush grows. It is very important to monitor the temperature in the greenhouse. It is necessary to avoid sharp drops and lowering up to +10 degrees. Then the leaves will begin to grow rapidly, and the size of the fruits will decrease significantly.
Growing cucumbers in a greenhouse in winter is a laborious process that will require an investment of money for the construction of a greenhouse and all communications. Despite this, you can get a harvest all year round, observing all agricultural techniques.