Cabbage is a vegetable that has been present in the diet of people since ancient times. Let's try to figure out some of them.
- Cabbage and savoy cabbage
- Cauliflower and broccoli
- Subspecies of garden cabbage. Kohlrabi, Brussels and Beijing
Cabbage and savoy cabbage
The most common type that is grown in gardens is garden cabbage. The species belongs to the genus Cabbage from the Cruciferous family. The most common variety is cabbage. Cabbage is grown for the sake of a dense dense head of cabbage. Botanists classify the head of cabbage or forks as a type of kidney.
To be precise, the head of cabbage is the apical bud, which is located at the top of the shoot. This bud - a head of cabbage - consists of many leaves, which are located on a modified stem - a cabbage stalk. The stump is a hard, shortened shoot, it is located inside the head of cabbage (fork).
Cabbage is grown as a biennial crop. In the first year, forks of petiole leaves are formed, which sit tightly on the stalk - the stalk. Flowers that give seeds appear in the second year. The cultivation of cabbage for seeds involves the use of special technologies.
Cabbage can be divided into two varieties:
- white cabbage
These varieties are distinguished by the color of the leaves. They are colored by colored plant glycosides - anthocyanins. It is anthocyanins that give red cabbage a specific and somewhat bitter taste. White-headed varieties, from a culinary point of view, are more versatile. In principle, red cabbage can be used in the same dishes as white cabbage, but during heat treatment it loses its bright color, but stains other products.
At the same time, it gives them not always an appetizing pale purple color. Therefore, it is more convenient to use red cabbage in fresh salads, especially since some of its varieties tolerate long-term fresh storage very well. The following varieties can be recommended for cultivation in private backyards:
- June, early variety
- Cossack F 1, early hybrid
- Zarya, very early grade
- Slava 1305, medium grade
- Caporal F 1, mid-season hybrid
- Moscow late, medium late variety
Savoy cabbage, although it forms forks, but its leaves do not have hard petioles and veins. The leaf, corrugated, with soft, vesicular veins, the leaves themselves do not have coarse petioles and veins, therefore it is referred to a different subspecies of garden cabbage than white and red cabbage. Savoy cabbage leaves can be either green, gray-green, or colored in different shades of yellow.
All varieties and varieties of cabbage and savoy cabbage are grown both through sowing on seedlings and sowing in open ground.
Cauliflower and broccoli
Cauliflower and broccoli are popular varieties of kale. They differ in that they have a one-year development cycle. They are popular as dietary varieties, with a pleasant taste, rich in vitamin composition, and low in calories. Cauliflower, together with Romanesco cabbage, is a head, flat or round, consisting of flowering shoots.
The color of the head and surrounding leaves can be different, depending on the presence of dyes in the plant tissues. In the future, the head grows, forming shoots with flowers, in the place of which seeds ripen. A characteristic feature of many cauliflower varieties is the extended yield period, which can exceed a calendar month.
The best varieties of cauliflower are:
- Snow globe, different heads, the weight of which reaches 1 kg, early
- Movir 74, hybrid allows you to grow and harvest two crops per season. early
- White beauty, has good taste and keeping quality, medium
- Amerigo F1, one of the most productive late hybrids
- Cortez F1, heads weigh up to 3 kg, late hybrid
It is genetically the ancestor and close relative of cauliflower. It is believed that the birthplace of this type of cabbage is Italy. Translated from Italian, broccoli means flowering branch or flowering stem. For many centuries this species was cultivated only in Italy and was not familiar in other places. From Italy, cabbage came to England, and from England - to the USA, where it successfully took root in the state of California, where it is still grown in huge quantities.
The second name for broccoli cabbage is asparagus, there is also a species called calabrez, it has a dense, hard head. Just like cauliflower, unopened inflorescences form a head.
When eaten, they are disassembled into fragments consisting of several inflorescences. The buds of broccoli are green, harvesting is carried out until the yellow flowers develop from them. As soon as the flowers open, broccoli is not eaten. The best varieties and hybrids of broccoli:
- Tonus, early
- Linda, middle
- Fiesta, medium
- Arcadia, middle
- Monterey, late
Subspecies of garden cabbage. Kohlrabi, Brussels and Beijing
Kohlrabi is a kind of cabbage - kocherezhka. A modified stem is used for food. It, like the forks of cabbage, is located above the ground, but it tastes most of all like a young juicy turnip or radish. In terms of vitamin C content, it surpasses other types of cabbage and more than lemon. The color of the stalk can be both white and red.
It ripens in less than two months, so you can sow in small batches so that the stem crop does not have time to become coarse and fibrous. You can sow directly into the ground. When bookmarked for long-term storage, it retains its useful properties well.
The best varieties:
- Delicacy red
- Vienna white
Brussels sprouts are a nodal subspecies of cabbage. On the stalk of the stem, there are many miniature cocks. Contains a lot of phosphorus and has a long ripening period. If you plant Brussels sprouts in April, then its harvest can be harvested in October, there are varieties that ripen only in December - January, so they are not suitable for the middle lane.
The disadvantages of this type of cabbage are the tendency to form arrows, the advantage is a pleasant nutty taste when boiled. Brussels sprouts can be white or red. The best varieties and hybrids are:
- Ruby, variety red, yield and taste are satisfactory
- Diamond F 1, early grade, arrow-resistant
- Hercules, late variety
Many botanists attribute Peking cabbage to a subspecies of the Turnip genus. The thin and folded leaves of Peking cabbage form a loose head of cabbage. In Asia, Korea, China, many salads and snacks are prepared from Peking cabbage. In Korea, its heads are fermented whole, shifting them with pepper, carrots and garlic. In addition, it is added to the filling of national steamed pies.
Another subspecies - Chinese cabbage, has thick stalks, which are customary to eat, it does not form a head of cabbage at all. In order to appreciate this or that variety of cabbage, it is worth planting all of them in small quantities, especially since they all have similar agricultural techniques.
Video on the benefits of broccoli: