Eggplant is a very common vegetable native to India. Eggplants are grown through seedlings, which in turn grow from seeds.
- Seed preparation for sowing
- Seedling care
Seed preparation for sowing
Eggplant seeds must be adapted to the area where they will be planted. For sowing, you need to take those seeds that have been stored for more than a year. Annual varieties have a long germination period, so you need to pay attention to this when sowing. Also, when choosing seeds, you should take into account the following nuances:
The most stable and productive are the first generation hybrids. You need to choose those seeds, the production of which takes place in accordance with GOST. When buying, you need to ensure that the exact quantity and date of collection are indicated on the packaging from the seeds.
The process of preparing eggplant seeds consists of several stages. Warming up the seeds. Seeds should be heated dry and hydrothermally. Dry heating is carried out 40 minutes before disembarkation. The seeds need to be warmed up in the oven, at a temperature of about sixty degrees. With hydrothermal heating, the seeds are dipped into a thermos with warm water for five minutes.
The next stage of preparation is to harden the seeds. Initially, they should be placed under a wet cloth for 20 hours. Soak the eggplant seeds under a cloth at room temperature. They should be placed in the refrigerator overnight and kept at room temperature the next day. The day before planting, the seeds are soaked in melt, or rainwater. After that, they need to be dried and planted.
First of all, the soil must be fertile. Therefore, when digging the land, it is necessary to introduce various mineral and organic fertilizers into it. Humus can also be added to the soil, but it must be remembered that eggplant seedlings are well accepted in light soil. In compacted areas, compact bushes will form, which affects the quality of mature vegetables.
Seedlings grown from seeds are transplanted into soil, which can have a different composition:
- A mixture of humus and sod land
- A mixture of turf, peat and sand
- A mixture of peat, fermented sawdust and water-diluted mullein
After two weeks after germination, eggplant seedlings can be dived. To do this, prepare pots with a capacity of no more than one liter. The transplanted seedlings should be kept indoors, with an air temperature of about 23 degrees. Gradually, the air temperature needs to be reduced. Transplanting seedlings into the ground can be done when ten real leaves appear.
To transplant ready-made seedlings, you need to in specially prepared holes. At the same time, the weather should not be hot and cloudy. This is necessary in order for the seedlings to take up better. After three to four days, you should check how much the sprouts have started. If there are dead seedlings, then a new one can be planted in its place.
Seedling care consists in feeding it, watering it and loosening the row spacing. Seedlings need to be watered regularly, but more abundant watering should be done during the mass formation of fruits. Watering the seedlings should be done every week. Each watering should be accompanied by loosening the soil to a depth of 10 cm and removing weeds.
Also, in the process of growth, it is necessary to periodically eliminate stepchildren, otherwise the eggplant fruits will have few nutrients. In order not to damage the root system of seedlings during weeding, the beds must be covered with mulch. As mulch, you can use several layers of wet newspaper covered with dry straw.
It is necessary to ensure that there is no excess moisture, otherwise the eggplants will be susceptible to fungal diseases. Watering the seedlings is necessary only with warm water (temperature about 30 degrees).
As for dressings, they must be carried out three to four times. This is due to the fact that young plants require large amounts of phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen. Therefore, the first feeding should be done in the following amount of fertilizers:
- Ammonium nitrate - 8-10g
- Superphosphate - 10g
- Potassium salt - 5-10g
For all subsequent dressings, the fertilizer application rates must be doubled. The most recent top dressing is done without nitrogen fertilization. Eggplants are very fond of heat, so the temperature of their cultivation should be within 20-25 degrees. In the course of their growth, seedlings are exposed to various diseases. First of all, it is a black leg.
To reduce the susceptibility to this disease, you need to constantly loosen the soil. Also, a black leg appears with excess moisture in the ground. To overcome this disease, you often need to loosen the soil and fertilize the soil with dry oven ash. The best time for a transplant is the month of May. This means that eggplant seeds need to be sown at the end of February.
Video on the correct cultivation of eggplant: