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Perilla shrub, description, varieties, cultivation and care


Perilla is a plant that many paid attention to, as it is increasingly used in landscaping settlements. The varieties with purple and variegated leaves, which are most often planted along paths, along the edges of flower beds, are especially eye-catching. One gets the impression that the plant is grown exclusively for its leaves, dark red or variegated. However, not many people know that shrub perilla is also an edible and medicinal plant.

Content:

  • Perilla, plant description
  • Perilla shrub varieties for growing in temperate climates
  • How to plant perilla seedlings
  • Planting perilla seedlings in the ground, caring for it

Perilla, plant description

Perilla is a genus of annual herbaceous plants from the Kotovnikovye subfamily, the Yasnotkovye family (Lipocytes). To some extent, she is a relative of lavender, mint, basil. The genus Perilla includes six species. The most famous is the shrub or basil perilla. It reaches a height of 0.8 - 1.4 meters, leaves are oval, petiolar or sessile. The arrangement of the leaves is opposite. There are railings with sheet plates:

  • Red
  • green color
  • variegated color

The flowers are bell-shaped, small, often whitish or creamy in green forms, with a slight violet tint in red-leafy ones. Flowers are located on short, pubescent pedicels. They are collected at the ends of the peduncles in a panicle or brush inflorescence. In place of the flower, a dry fruit is formed, which is subsequently divided into four nuts. Small seeds are located in these nuts. They contain up to 45% essential oil. It is highly valued in the production of fast drying paints and varnishes.

After special purification, perilla seed oil is considered very beneficial. In addition, the refined oil and leaves of the plant are used as food for salads and other dishes. In Asian countries, it is not only a popular salad and spicy culture, but also a useful medicinal plant. The benefits of perilla are due to the high content of carotene, which is higher in it than in carrots. The plant also contains:

  • essential oils
  • iron
  • potassium
  • calcium
  • magnesium
  • vitamins C, PP, B 1, B2

Due to the perillamine pigment content, the plant is used as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory agent. It is used to strengthen the immune system, heart and blood vessels, and improve vision. Perilla is considered an effective contraceptive in folk medicine.

In addition, perilla is planted as an ornamental plant in landscape design. Thus, by growing perilla on the site, you can combine the decorativeness of the plant with its medicinal and culinary properties.

Perilla shrub varieties for growing in temperate climates

The most famous Japanese varieties of perilla, which are called:

  • Aoshisa, green leaves
  • Akoshisa, red leaves

Japanese varieties are distinguished by good growth of leaf mass, unpretentiousness.

The following varieties of domestic selection are grown as an agricultural crop.

  • Dewdrop, fruitful, early ripening, with good cold resistance, green leaves
  • In memory of Covas, early maturing

For food, the plant is cut throughout the season. With mass harvesting, cutting begins at the beginning of flowering. It is produced at a height of 10 cm from the ground. The cut perilla remains fresh for about a week. For preparation for future use, the perilla is dried, crushed and stored in hermetically sealed jars. For decorative purposes, you can plant such a variety of shrubby perilla as Mulatka. The plant of this variety reaches a height of 0.8 m. The crown is pyramidal, the leaves are beautifully cut along the edge, slightly corrugated, violet-red. So that the plant does not lose its decorative appearance, peduncles are removed from it.

In the garden landscape, perilla is most often used as a curb plant. In mixed flower plantings, perilla with dark colored leaf perfectly sets off any flowering plants and is combined with plants with light, gray or silvery foliage. Growing shrub perilla for decorative purposes, part of it can be stored for future use for cooking and as a means of traditional medicine.

How to plant perilla seedlings

In temperate climates, perilla shrub is grown through seedlings. This is due to the fact that its seeds not only sprout for a long time, but also grow very slowly at first. The planting time for perilla seedlings is the end of March - April. In order to accelerate seed germination, they are soaked in water for 72 hours. During this time, repeated water changes are required. It is best to do this every three to four hours.

Perilla is undemanding to the ground. Two parts of humus earth are mixed with one part of peat and spilled with a solution of mineral fertilizers. Seedling pots are filled with drainage material, ordinary expanded clay is suitable. After that, they are filled with soil and seeds are sown. This can be done in shallow moistened grooves without embedding in the ground.

Cover the box with plastic foil and place in a warm place. When the roots hatch, lightly sprinkle the grooves with fine sand and moisten. This procedure can be repeated one more time. Green seedlings appear around the tenth day.

When the plant has two or three leaves, the seedlings can be dived into separate cups. You should not transplant the perilla into a common container, since when planting in the ground, the roots can be damaged. Perilla bush is planted in the ground in the first decade of June. Important! If during the growing season you need to get ripe seeds from perilla, then you need to sow it for seedlings much earlier, no later than the first days of February, otherwise they will not have time to ripen in a temperate climate. in the middle of autumn, one or two perilla bushes are transplanted into pots and then the seeds have time to ripen at home. They are quite enough for growing new seedlings.

Planting perilla seedlings in the ground, caring for it

Seat selection

If perilla is grown as a vegetable crop, a well-lit and wind-protected area is suitable for it. The soil should be loose, permeable. The best predecessors are peas and beans. In the south, perilla can be sown before winter, and in temperate climates can be grown through seedlings. If possible, then in the fall it is advisable to add rotted compote. Dig up the earth on the bayonet of the shovel. Application rate - 3 kg per sq.m. In the spring, you can apply a complex mineral fertilizer just before planting.

Planting seedlings in the ground

As soon as the average daily temperatures settle at +10 +12 degrees, the perilla is transplanted into the open ground. Planting density - 25 perilla bushes per square meter. The distance between the rows is 40 cm, between the plants - 30 cm.The main care is as follows:

  • watering
  • feeding
  • loosening
  • weeding
  • pinch

For feeding, a small amount of dry chicken manure is used, scattering it under the bushes. Perilla tolerates minor drought well, but if the summer is dry, then it needs watering. Today, shrub perilla is gaining more and more attention from gardeners and cooks, perhaps it is worthy of growing on your site.

Perilla plant video:


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