The Queen of the garden
Roses are shrubs cultivated for centuries in all the gardens of the world; in Europe they have undergone decades of hybridization and crossbreeding, which led to the production of many varieties, with particularly colored or fragrant flowers, and above all, characteristics that denotes modern, very re-flowering varieties. In fact, botanical roses of European origin are not flowering, or they bloom only once in abundant fashion, in spring; for the rest of the warm season they bloom sporadically, or for some species, never bloom again, until the following year. The hybridization between the European botanical species and the resurgent Asian species has led to the production of shrubs with continuous flowering, from spring to winter cold. In fact, modern roses are often semi-evergreen, that is they keep the foliage until the climatic conditions are favorable for their development: therefore in particularly cold areas they lose most of the foliage in winter; in particularly hot areas they lose much of the foliage in the most torrid weeks of the summer. For the remaining months these plants produce abundant foliage and flowers.
Depending on the variety, modern roses tend to flourish periodically every 30-40 days, or they continuously produce new flowers; the roses that flourish periodically therefore present buds and flowers that have bloomed for a few weeks, then only foliage for at least 20-25 days, and then a new flowering, and so on until the cold winters. The roses of the second type instead, for the whole beautiful season, present buds, flowers bloomed and withered flowers.
Once you have chosen the species or variety to be planted, remember to work the soil well, mixing it with a little manure, and lightening it, if necessary, with good quality universal soil. Once the ground of the flowerbed has been prepared, we place the rose in a place where it can enjoy at least 6-8 hours of direct sunlight every day. There are few species and varieties of roses that bear the shade well, many of which are to be found among the botanical species; while modern varieties tend to perish or bloom little if placed in an excessively shaded place.
Once the plant is in position, water the soil well; during the summer it is advisable to continue with watering, insisting in periods characterized by low rainfall; let's avoid leaving the soil always damp, and let's intervene with watering when it is well dried. In addition to the mature manure, supplied at the end of winter, we can spread at the feet of the plants a slow release granular fertilizer, so as to guarantee the plant the right level of mineral salts.
To avoid the most common diseases we try not to water by wetting the foliage, which is often subject to diseases such as oidium, which in particular attacks the often moist foliage. The other pests that most commonly afflict the roses are the aphids, which nest on the buds, the scab, and various types of beetles that love to devour their flowers.
Generally a healthy plant tends not to be compromised by diseases or insects; there is a tendency to watch the presence of aphids particularly, because they ruin the flowering, not because they are a problem for the plant; the early use of products against aphids, to be practiced before roses begin to bloom, generally solves the problem throughout the summer.
Certainly the most important crop element when it comes to roses is flowering; most of the single-flowering botanical species produce buds on the branches of the previous year; for this reason, if we want to enjoy its flowers, we will have to avoid autumn or winter pruning, and simply shorten the longer or leaner branches after spring flowering.
As far as all modern species are concerned, these bloom on new branches, produced after the spring vegetative recovery; for these plants vigorous pruning is essential, to be carried out at the end of winter, as soon as the risk of frost has moved away, or in late autumn. This type of pruning, which generally leads to resizing the plants, to reduce them to 20-30 cm from the ground, must be done by cutting all the old branches, with dry or hard wood, and to shorten all new hooks, leaving only 2 -4 gems per samo. Possibly we choose the last gem among those oriented towards the outside of the shrub, so as to give the plant a cup-shaped conformation, and avoiding the production of branches that cross within the plant.
A rose so pruned will produce many buds, all on new branches. As most varieties of roses take about 3-5 weeks to produce new branches, we will wait for this time to see the new buds. During flowering we remove the branches that carry the withered flowers, to favor again the development of new branches, and therefore floriferous.
Rose - Rose: The flowerbed and the vase
Roses are generally grown in the open ground, where they can enlarge their root system to taste; they are often cultivated as single specimens, leaving at least 50-80 cm of free space on each side.
Instead, a flowerbed of ground cover roses needs a denser plantation, in order to obtain a real carpet of flowers; the ground cover in general is planted in the number of 3-5 per square meter, depending on the final size of the plants.
For a row of roses, instead, we will tend to space the plants at least 35-45 cm, so that they can be enlarged to cup; if we have chosen very vigorous plants, we will leave up to 60-80 cm between the two plants.
Climbing roses tend to develop a lot, and to better make them flower it is good to grow them by arching their branches, so as to favor the development of lateral branches; for this reason an adult climbing rose can develop laterally for 2-3 meters of width, let's keep it in mind when we place two climbing roses nearby.
If we wish we can grow our roses in pots; in order to do this it is necessary to have capacious vases, so that the shrubs develop a good root system; we fill the pots with good universal soil, mixed with the common garden soil and a little manure, to improve fertility and dough. We always remember that the potted plants need a little more care than the cousins placed in the ground, this is because they have a limited amount of land available, so they suffer more from drought, or from excess water; they are even more afraid of the lack or excesses of fertilization.