Many gardeners have empirically come to the conclusion that some plants feel very comfortable next to each other, grow and develop well.
Others, being close to each other, grow slowly, get sick, give a poor harvest, therefore, when planning joint planting of vegetables, one should take into account the influence of neighbors.
- Crop rotation and useful neighborhood
- Selection of predecessors and neighbors for major garden crops
- Neighbors for bulbs, tubers and green vegetables
- Siderata, types and benefits
Crop rotation and useful neighborhood
For the successful cultivation of vegetable crops in summer cottages and garden plots, it is important to take into account many factors, adhere to some elements of crop rotation and the correct useful neighborhood.
This approach is beneficial and convenient because:
- prevents the accumulation of harmful substances in the soil
- promotes the full use of fertilizers
- reduces the cost of pest and disease control
- fully allows the use of any soil
Ideally, you need to draw up a planting plan annually, taking into account the culture - the predecessor, former and future neighbors, soil quality, last year's application of organic and mineral fertilizers, the geographical location of the site and its landscape.
This is important, for example, after a recent application of manure, many crops may simply not yield a harvest, while others will not bear fruit on poor organic soil.
When planting vegetables, you need to focus on the size of the root system so that the plants do not become competitors in the fight for moisture and nutrients. The same goes for the size of the ground units.
Choosing the right neighborhood for vegetables, you can not only compact the crops, but also facilitate their collection, if you correctly arrange crops with the same and different seed germination times, a similar and excellent growing season.
For example, the seeds of carrots and parsley not only take a long time to sprout, but also grow slowly in the first weeks; a nearby lettuce planted next to it manages to both rise and give the harvest.
The simplest solution for the correct positioning of vegetables, taking into account the previous plantings, is to divide the vegetable garden into four zones and move the crops clockwise every year, placing the "correct" neighbors in each zone.
Selection of predecessors and neighbors for major garden crops
Most gardeners allot most of the territory for planting potatoes. On six hundred square meters, it is difficult to allocate a new site for this crop every year, but with the conditional division of the territory into four zones, you can move the potato bed to a new place.
The best precursors for potatoes would be:
Unacceptable predecessors are pepper, tomato, eggplant.
The best neighbors for potatoes are always legumes, this is primarily due to the need of this crop for nitrogen, which legumes have adapted to obtain from the air and transform into the form necessary for potatoes and enrich the soil with them.
For cucumbers, the best predecessors are:
After these same plants, it is good to plant zucchini, pumpkin.
It is unacceptable to plant cucumbers after:
They grow best next to corn and sunflower. These crops not only create a good microclimate for cucumbers, but also serve as a natural support for them.
Do not place cabbage after turnips and radishes.
Any onion will be the best neighbor for cabbage. This applies to both white and other types of cabbage:
The planting of tomatoes is excluded if the following grew on the garden in the previous year:
The best neighbors for tomatoes are:
Such neighbors are also favorable for eggplant and pepper.
If we analyze the options for joint cultivation of basic vegetables, then we can conclude that plants of the same family are unfavorable with each other.
It is better not to place nightshades, potatoes, peppers, tomatoes nearby, as this increases the competition for nitrogen in the soil and the likelihood of damage to the plantings by the Colorado potato beetle.
This also applies to other families to which the main garden vegetables belong, since plants of the same family have similar nutrient needs and suffer from the same diseases.
Neighbors for bulbs, tubers and green vegetables
The next group of vegetable crops, although it occupies a much smaller area on the site than the same potatoes, cabbage and cucumbers, but their yield is also important for gardeners.
If it is planned to simultaneously grow turnips, carrots, beets, onions, garlic on the site, then it should be remembered that the edible part of these plants is formed not on the surface, but underground, and their ground parts are of approximately the same size, so competition may also go underground and on its surface.
Cucumbers and tomatoes are considered the best neighbors for dining beets. It is better to plant beets after onions, and do not grow them after turnips, rutabagas. Carrots will feel good if their neighbors in the garden are spinach, lettuce, tomato.
Turnips, radishes and radishes grow remarkably alongside peas, nasturtium, and spinach. Strawberries will be good neighbors for onions and garlic.
Such a neighborhood is also beneficial for strawberries, since these crops are the best prevention against its diseases and pests. You should not plant onions if there was garlic in the garden last season, but after potatoes or peas, the harvest of onions and garlic will delight you with its abundance.
Parsley, dill, basil, cilantro, other green crops and herbs coexist alongside asparagus, peas and onions. The best predecessors for them will be cabbage and cucumbers, and the worst - carrots.
Sometimes it happens that it is not possible to fulfill the above recommendations in a vegetable garden or summer cottage. Here siderates will come to the rescue.
Siderata, types and benefits
Siderata are crops that can simultaneously be both predecessors and neighbors for vegetables. They improve the soil with their roots and ground part, enriching it in a natural way with useful organic and mineral substances.
Siderata, planted among vegetables, partially distract pests to themselves, such as radish scare off nematodes, and mustard successfully inhibits scab.
The role of green manure can be played by the following crops:
- legumes - vetch, rank, soy
- cereals - oats, barley, paiza
- cruciferous - rape, radish, mustard
As neighbors for vegetable crops, green manures can be planted as follows:
- Place early-ripening green manure among vegetables that grow for a long time.
- In row spacings and between rows with vegetable crops.
- At the end of the gardening season after harvest.
Currently, green manure crops in private farmsteads are not used very often, this is associated with additional material and physical costs.
Very often, chemical fertilizers and other means are used to increase the yield, although it is worth providing the vegetables with the right neighbors and they will give a good harvest without chemicals.
Informative video about joint planting of vegetable crops: