Raspberries delight us with their pleasant taste and delicate aroma in early July, and some varieties in October or November. Growing raspberries is easy. To get a good harvest, you need to know some of the nuances.
- How to prepare the soil for raspberries
- Features of planting raspberries
- Raspberry care rules
How to prepare the soil for raspberries
The raspberry bush takes root well in fertile soils with sufficient moisture. Lack of moisture leads to a poor harvest. Therefore, favorable conditions for the development of raspberries should be created. The area where the raspberries will be planted must be weeded and weeded.
On peaty soil, clay and manure are added during planting to enhance the activity of microorganisms that decompose peat. In low places, frost damage to raspberry bushes is possible, so it is not recommended to plant varieties that bloom early.
Raspberries are planted along the entire length and the entire width of the row. For this purpose, passes up to 60 cm wide are made and trenches up to 40 cm deep are dug. If there are sod-podzolic soils on the site, then the depth is made normal. Next, mix the top layer of soil with mineral fertilizers: ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, potassium salt, etc. Fertilizers are usually mixed with the ground, which will be used for digging holes.
Raspberries usually grow along the fence on the south side. It is not recommended to plant raspberries near potatoes, tomatoes and strawberries. The place for planting and growing raspberries should be well lit.
Features of planting raspberries
Planting material is harvested in the fall. The thickness of the root collar of seedlings should be at least 8-10 mm. The root system should reach 15 cm and show no obvious signs of disease.
Planting raspberries should be done in late September or early October. It is important to plant before the soil freezes so that the roots take root and give a good harvest. Some gardeners do this in early spring, when the buds have not yet sprouted.
Raspberries are grown in two ways: tape and bush. In the first case, a trench is dug, and in the second, they are planted in holes.
The distance between the rows should be about 125 cm, and between the plants about 50 cm.
Like soil, seedlings also require preparation for planting. Excess shoots must be cut off and only one left. Its height should not exceed 20 cm.
Before lowering the plant into the hole, the roots must be moistened in a mullein nutrient solution or in a soil mash. This is done so that the roots of the planting material do not dry out. If the roots dry out a little during storage, then before planting they must be put in water for 10 hours.
Many gardeners make the mistake of planting bushes. Do not put seedlings at the bottom of the trench, and then sprinkle with soil. As a result, the seedlings and bush will not take root.
The correct planting of seedlings should be carried out according to the following scheme: add humus, potash fertilizers, superphosphate to the dug hole and mix with the ground.
It is important that the roots do not touch mineral fertilizers. Next, the seedlings are laid in a hole according to the growth of the bush. After that, the hole is covered with earth and tamped well. Then the planted bushes are watered. One bush will need a bucket of water. After the water is absorbed, needles, humus, peat, fallen leaves, etc. can be poured under the raspberry bushes.
When planting autumn varieties of raspberries, hilling must be carried out. To do this, cover the lower part of the stem with soil 10 cm. Then the roots will not stick out from the ground and the buds in the lower part will remain intact. If you plant in accordance with the recommendations, raspberries will begin to bear fruit in a year.
Raspberry care rules
In order for raspberries to thrive and bring a rich harvest, they need a sufficient amount of nutrients and moisture. Every year it is recommended to replenish the soil with fertilizers and, if necessary, use a drip irrigation system.
In spring, the soil in the raspberry tree should be loosened. In the summer, the soil requires repeated loosening and weeding. The soil is cultivated depending on the amount of weeds that have appeared and the appearance of a tough crust.
The site must be monitored not only in the summer season, but also in the winter. Before the onset of winter, the ground between the rows should be dug up to a depth of 15 cm, and the row itself should be up to 10 cm. After that, wood ash is added. It is advisable to dig with a pitchfork so as not to damage the main roots.
The soil is covered with humus up to 12 cm thick. For the winter, some varieties of raspberries bend down, i.e. tilt the bushes to each other and tie. You can cover the top with leaves or spruce branches. This is done so that severe frosts do not damage the shoots.
Raspberry bushes are quite tall, so they need support when growing. The trellis support can improve the illumination of the raspberry, facilitate soil cultivation and maintenance. The support is made as follows: put 2 stakes on both sides of the trench and pull the wire. You can use plastic twine and thick line.
In hot weather, water the raspberries abundantly to avoid drying out the shoots.
Water the raspberry bush before flowering and ripening berries. Abundant watering, especially in hot weather, helps to increase yields and increase fruit size.
Raspberries are very much in need of nutrients, therefore, be sure to fertilize in the first year after planting. For this, a solution of mullein or bird droppings is usually used.
Then feeding is carried out 2 times a year - in July and August.
It is necessary to monitor the raspberry shoots and, if necessary, shorten them to a developed bud. If there are frozen, weak, thin shoots, then they are cut off by 8-10 cm. After harvesting, those shoots that have borne fruit must be cut almost to the very base.
Pruning should be done in the spring. This procedure helps the lateral branches develop better and the fruit grows in size. Raspberry berries must be picked as they ripen, not allowing them to overripe on the bushes.
On one site, raspberries live for about 15 years. After this time, it is transplanted to another place in order to avoid the appearance of diseases and the spread of pests.
If all favorable conditions are created for the cultivation of raspberries, then the reproduction of the dwarf shrub occurs in a vegetative way. A good harvest of raspberries will be only if you carry out regular care for them.
Video on the proper care of raspberries: