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Diseases and pests of the apple tree: you need to know the enemy by sight


Healthy fruit trees have been delighting with harvests for decades. The quiet life of apple trees can be disrupted by pests and diseases that seriously damage them.

Content:

  • Common diseases
  • Apple tree cancer - a destructive disease
  • Fruit pests
  • How to fight for the health of an apple tree?

Common diseases

All fruit trees are susceptible to fungi, bacteria and viruses. They are adversely affected by the lack of nutrients, disturbances in temperature and water conditions. In a diseased plant, the trunk, branches and roots are destroyed, the fruits begin to rot.

The most dangerous for the apple tree:

  • Scab
  • Fruit rot
  • Powdery mildew
  • Cytosporosis
  • Bacterial burn
  • Milky shine

The scab pathogen survives the winter in tree bark and on fallen leaves. With the arrival of spring, spores affect young foliage: spots appear on it. First, they shine through, then they acquire a grayish tint with a touch of green. Apples covered with brown, black spots shrivel and crack.

The fruit rot pathogen hibernates on fallen apples with miniliosis. In the spring, spores develop on rotten fruits. Often the peak of the disease occurs in mid-July: a brownish spot spreads over the surface of the apples, the pulp loses its taste.

Powdery mildew manifests itself as a dirty-whitish bloom, covering leaves, buds, inflorescences and shoots. Later, it changes color to brown with small black blotches. Affected leaves turn yellow and fall off. The apples are not tied, because the infected inflorescences die off.

With cytosporosis, the bark suffers: in some places it dries. Dark wounds form on the trunk, which quickly enlarge and change color to brownish-red. The bark, along with the branches, dies off.

Viruses cause bacterial burns. Reminds of itself in July: annual growths dry up, foliage turns black. The tree can be destroyed in 2 years. The disease spreads through affected seedlings and cuttings taken for vegetative propagation. Pests carry pathogens.

With a milky shine, whole branches die off. Sometimes the apple tree dies out entirely. Leaves with air cavities under the skin will "tell" about the defeat.

Enemies of apple trees are fungi, bacteria and viruses that cause irreparable harm to the fruit crop.

Apple tree cancer - a destructive disease

The disease is visible visually. The tree is weakened and damaged under unfavorable climatic conditions or due to improper care. A badly damaged apple tree can die in 3 years. There are several types of cancer: common and black. In the first case, the trunk and crown of the tree are covered with thickenings. Sometimes the injured bark will rot.

In the ordinary form of the disease, lesions are classified as closed (depressions are formed) or open (growths appear). These "wounds" are persistent formations that do not overgrow or disappear. The area around them acquires a reddish tint and is covered with additional growths. The apple tree falls ill with cancer due to frost. At low temperatures, the trunk cracks: it is easier for spores of the fungus to penetrate into the crown.

A quick reaction at the first sign of damage will help save the tree. The wounds are covered with garden varnish or Bordeaux liquid. All affected branches are removed. They are burned by making a fire away from healthy fruit crops.

The course of black cancer is about the same. The causative agent of the disease enters the bark during pruning or through damage caused by a low temperature regime. The parasite provokes the appearance of dark purple spots on the trunk of the apple tree. At the site of the lesion, the bark flakes off and cracks.

Visually, it seems that the tree is burnt. The blackened trunk is covered with growths containing fungal spores. The disease spreads to leaves and fruits. First, lighter areas appear on separate leaves. Over time, their middle becomes covered with dark dots. Affected foliage begins to dry out and fall off.

The same thing happens with apples. Timely disinfection of cracks in the bark is a means of preventing ailment. Vigorous and frost-resistant varieties are less likely to get sick. Cancer for the apple tree is a great danger, affecting all parts of the tree.

Fruit pests

Parasites damage all parts of the plant. They feed on juice from leaves, buds and buds, gnaw on apples and greens. A particular danger is posed by:

  1. Green apple aphid. The eggs survive the winter on young shoots of the plant. It multiplies at an incredible rate. Large colonies live on leaves, feeding on their sap. Affected foliage differs from healthy foliage: it is deformed, twisted and wrinkled.
  2. Red apple mite. The eggs of the parasite are adapted to harsh conditions: they are not afraid of frost even -350C. They survive bad weather, hiding in the bark, near the buds, in the places of branch shoots. Larvae appear before or during flowering. They take the juice from young leaves.
  3. Apple moth. For the winter, caterpillars hide in the bark of an apple tree. After waiting for the buds to bloom, they show up and gnaw on the leaves. Injured greens turn brown and die off. Adults eat leaves, form nests from cobwebs.
  4. Hawthorn. In autumn, the hawthorn butterfly leaves nests on apple trees - the wintering places for caterpillars. In the spring, pests emerge from shelters and damage the tree.
  5. Apple blossom beetle. Brownish gray beetle decorated with light stripes on the underwings. In the spring, before the onset of real heat, it appears from the cracks in the bark. Damages unblown buds, gnawing holes in them.
  6. Apple moth. Dense cocoons with caterpillars hide from the winter cold in the bark and soil. When the air warms up to + 100C, butterflies are shown. For 30 days, they lay eggs on leaves and then on apples. The hatched caterpillars feed on fruits.
  7. Apple honeydew. The young insect is bright green. Growing up, it changes to brownish-yellow and red tones. Eggs hide from the cold at the base of the buds and in the fractures of the bark. In early spring, the larvae damage the buds, and then the leaves and buds.

For numerous parasites, the apple tree is a shelter from winter frosts, a source of food.

How to fight for the health of an apple tree?

The foresight, a developed plan of measures to protect the garden will help to cope with all the troubles. Tips to keep your trees healthy:

  1. Among the variety of varieties, it is worth choosing disease-resistant and frost-resistant.
  2. Do not plant seedlings that look unhealthy.
  3. We'll have to stock up on insecticides and fungicides in sufficient quantities: you can't do without spraying. Trapping belts will not be superfluous.
  4. Periodic inspections of trees will allow you to identify uninvited guests in time. You can use a magnifying glass: parasites are good at disguising themselves.

It is important to feed the apple trees in a timely manner, monitor the condition of the soil, the immunity of the trees. Pruning branches in the spring. Plants are treated with Bordeaux mixture or Copper sulfate. Apply insecticides. If the weather is rainy, there is a high probability of being hit by scab. You need to keep a remedy against it at hand.

In the summer they hang up traps, regularly collect carrion, inspect the plants. In the fall, the exfoliated bark is cleaned and burned, the affected branches are removed. Be sure to collect and destroy the fallen leaves.

Systematic measures against pests and diseases will allow you to enjoy high yields of delicious fruits.

It is impossible to imagine a garden without apple trees. Backyard owners need to know how to deal with a pest infestation on fruit trees.

Video about diseases and pests of apple trees:


Watch the video: Producing Good Fruit (January 2022).