Seeing at least once the most beautiful euonymus bush, every amateur gardener is eager to plant the same miracle of nature on his site or at home. But stroking such beauty, it seems that it will not be so easy to grow and maintain a long life for this beautiful plant, because, most likely, it, like all extraordinary vegetation, is too whimsical and gentle. But no!
Despite all its extraordinary nature, Euonymus is quite survivable and stable, it calmly endures both hot summers and cold winters, and it can be grown on almost any continent of our globe.
- What does a plant look like
- Popular varieties of euonymus
- Indoor and garden euonymus: what you need to know?
- Pests and diseases
What does a plant look like
Euonymus is a woody plant of the euonymus family, it has more than two hundred species, divided into small trees and shrubs, among them deciduous and evergreen. The height, in natural conditions, reaches seven meters, in garden ones up to 2-4 meters, and even less at home.
The genus euonymus grows mainly in mixed and deciduous forests of a temperate subtropical climate, it is also found in the tropics, but not so often, and only places in the cold northern regions are a complete exception.
In appearance, the leaves are ordinary, smooth, but in the autumn they become especially beautiful, each leaf has the ability to be painted in a diverse color palette, including yellow, white, purple, red and orange shades, which leaves no one indifferent!
It blooms with small greenish flowers, from which in the future there are fruits similar to hanging boxes or paper lanterns, seeds are hidden inside them. The color of the boxes is most often from light pink to dark purple, there are red-brown, it all depends on the species. The structure is dry, leathery, the capsule is four-part.
All parts of this plant are poisonous to both humans and animals, but, despite this, some species are used for medicinal purposes.
Caution! Do not use it as a treatment without consulting your doctor!
Popular varieties of euonymus
Among all the variety of species, there are special varieties used for cultivation in our climate, there are about twenty of them, in the list below we will consider some of them:
- euonymus Semyonov
- Fortune's euonymus
Japanese is an evergreen shrub and is practically the only cultivar suitable for indoor cultivation. The height reaches a meter, the leaves are about 8 cm. In addition to its beauty, it has another important, useful feature - the ability to purify the air in the room.
Indoor and garden euonymus: what you need to know?
How is the spindle tree planting and caring? Let's take a closer look.
- Landing. At home, it must be planted in a water-retaining soil mixture, as euonymus prefers moderate moisture. In the garden, it can be planted in regular, fertile soil, previously dug up and mixed with compost. Important. Planting should be done only in autumn or spring. If the soil is too dense (heavy) mix it with sand. The selected location must be free of groundwater.
- Watering in summer and winter. Water for irrigation should be defended for at least a day. In the spring and summer, you need to water abundantly without allowing the soil to dry out completely, but the water in the pot should not stagnate, it is especially important to monitor this in winter. In the cold season, watering should be reduced, acidification of the soil will adversely affect the plant. In natural conditions, special care is not required. Water abundantly in summer, especially young shrubs, and completely exclude watering in winter.
- Lighting. Although euonymus is a shade-tolerant plant, it is very light-loving, therefore, the lighting in the room where it grows should be bright, it is not afraid of direct sunlight, and even, on the contrary, thanks to the sun, its growth and saturation of leaves improves. But this does not mean that in a dimmer light it will disappear, it will grow and in the northern part of the house the development process will simply be slow, and the leaves may lose their brightness. For planting outdoors, feel free to choose the sunniest place, less shade, more light, that's what you need first of all! But there are exceptions, some varieties should be planted in shaded areas.
- Temperatures in summer and winter. The temperature during the warm season should not exceed 25 ° C, it will be useful to take it out into the fresh air, for example, on a balcony or terrace. In general, euonymus is not particularly picky about temperatures, it can withstand both cold and heat equally, but in winter it is best to reduce it to 8 - 10 ° C. If the plant has to hibernate at a hotter temperature, its leaves can completely crumble. Garden euonymus trees and shrubs, more hardy than indoor ones, they can easily withstand frosts down to -25 ° C, so the only thing that may be required is to wrap the plant for the winter.
- Humidity. It is just as picky about humidity as it is about temperature, but nevertheless it should be sprayed, this will help prevent the appearance of pests and will only be beneficial. Spraying should be carried out only with settled or boiled water (not hot!).
- Top dressing. It should be fed in spring and summer with complex mineral fertilizers, no more than once a month, after watering.
- Shaping and pruning. Pruning is carried out throughout the year as the shoots dry up. If there are weak branches, they should also be cut off so that they would not waste the plant's strength in vain. Everyone can give shape to their taste and preference. If you wish and work hard, you can even grow bonsai from spindle tree.
- Transplanting. For the first five years, the euonymus is transplanted every year into a slightly larger pot, then it will need to be transplanted less and less, once every three years.
The composition of the soil can be from the following components:
- turf land
- leaf land
Advice. To prevent stagnation of water in the pot, pour expanded clay or broken bricks at its very bottom, such a drainage layer will protect the plant from decay, especially in winter.
A street tree does not need replanting, but if the place is not suitable, then it should be replanted in the spring. Adult bushes over 5 years old, it is better not to transplant at all.
How to propagate a miracle bush?
There are three ways to reproduce euonymus:
- vegetatively (division)
- the seeds
All three methods are suitable for both indoor and garden plants of this species. In the first case, reproduction takes place during transplantation, carefully, without damaging the roots, the branches of the plant are separated and planted in separate pots. Special care for this reproduction is not required.
In the second case, young shoots up to 5 - 6 centimeters long with at least a couple of nodes are cut off and rooted in separate containers with previously prepared soil. Next, the container is placed in a warm place and covered with glass.
Important. The container should be shallow, cuttings are cut somewhere at the end of June, and the glass must be periodically removed in order to ventilate and spray the young plant.
Seed propagation takes much longer than cuttings and division. The whole process takes about seven months of hard work. Before seeds are suitable for planting, they must go through a stratification process, which consists of several stages:
- creation of artificial wintering (so that the seed coat falls off)
- exposure of seeds at temperatures from 0 to 4 ° C
- seed dressing
- planting in a special soil for the emergence of sprouts
You can transplant it into the ground when the sprouts are 10 - 15 centimeters high.
Pests and diseases
If the color of the leaves has become dull, losing its saturation, and the bush itself is growing very slowly, it may not have enough lighting. The leaves turn yellow and crumble - too abundant watering. If this problem is not identified in time, then root decay will begin and the bush will disappear.
If green leaves fall off, then the problem may be too high temperature and dry air. This often happens in winter.
The leaves dry out, lose their color and crumble, and brown plaques have appeared on the surface, the reason is the scabbard pests. The bush must be treated with a special solution. When a spider mite appears, the bush should be treated with a soapy solution, for example, by wiping it with a sponge soaked in it and doused with a warm shower.
The appearance of white dots indicates a red flat mite. Remove damaged leaves before it spreads and starts to spoil your plant.
As you can see, euonymus is very unpretentious, hardy and easy to care for. Having decided to plant it on your site, you do not need to spend a lot of time and effort, as is often the case with other plants. And its extraordinary beauty will delight the eye for more than one day, especially in autumn.
An interesting video about the garden euonymus: