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Cool seasons are the best times for broccoli to grow. Varieties with fast ripening, which normally tolerate high temperatures and unfavorable weather conditions, are especially fruitful.
If we compare this vegetable with cauliflower, then it can be noted that broccoli contains more proteins, vitamins, mineral salts, carbohydrates. The vegetable is used to stop the development of cardiovascular diseases, gout, and disorders of the nervous system. Broccoli tastes good, softer than cauliflower. To get a rich harvest, you need to properly grow broccoli from seeds, using some secrets.
One head of broccoli is saturated with vitamins such as B1, B2, B6, PP, C, K, E, fiber, beta-carotene, folic acid. In addition, the composition contains minerals. These are calcium, phosphorus, manganese, potassium, magnesium, iron. This dietary product is used for the prevention of many diseases. Anetholtriteon is obtained from broccoli. This substance is used to treat breast cancer.
If a person regularly consumes broccoli, the risk of developing diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis decreases. The substances in this vegetable destroy bacteria. But to get a good harvest of this useful product, knowledge of planting techniques is required.
- Planting site for broccoli, soil
- Features of planting broccoli seeds and seedlings
- Broccoli care
Planting site for broccoli, soil
For normal growth, broccoli requires at least 6 hours of sunshine per day. This vegetable loves fresh air. Therefore, it is better to choose a place that is well ventilated.
You should also pay attention to the soil. It must be fertile, light so that water can penetrate into it. If necessary, organic fertilizers are added to the soil. For example, compost, rotted manure. This should be done without fail if the land is not saturated with organic matter and minerals. When planting broccoli in the spring, fertilize the soil in the fall.
The growth of cabbage also depends on acidity. It should range from 6 to 7 pH. In other words, the soil should be neutral, contain a small amount of alkali. From the acidic earth, vegetables are saturated with toxins, as heavy metals penetrate into them. To reduce the acidity level, manure and compost are introduced.
Determine this level using litmus paper. It is not difficult to buy it in the store. For the acidity to decrease by one indicator, it takes about 9 kg of compost or 3 kg of manure per 1 square meter. In neutral soil, not only broccoli develops better, but also other plants, since such conditions provoke the absorption of nutrients, the microflora is well developed here. From this, the soil is airy and loose.
To maintain the required temperature and humidity, soil mulching is used, since the roots should not overheat. Various mineral fertilizers, which are saturated with nitrogen, improve plant growth. If it is not possible to add organic matter, it is recommended to use a chemical or organic granular fertilizer. It can also be purchased.
Planting time for broccoli
In order for the harvest to appear as early as possible, the seeds are planted on seedlings. The growing season is about 100 days, then the harvest begins to ripen. It should be borne in mind that the vegetable grows well in cool seasons, so its development is suspended if extreme heat sets in. Therefore, it is difficult to grow broccoli in warm areas.
Even in winter, you should start planting seeds for seedlings. Until the beginning of spring, it will get stronger, then it can be planted in open ground at a permanent place of growth.
Features of planting broccoli seeds and seedlings
Preparing seeds for planting
Often the seeds purchased in sachets are ready for planting. But often people collect them themselves. It takes preparation to land them. The seeds are soaked for 2 hours in a non-concentrated solution of potassium permanganate. Any disinfectant solution can be used instead.
It is recommended to place the washed seeds in a liquid that stimulates growth. This is not a mandatory procedure, but it can push you in the initial stages of growth. After that, the seeds are dried if planting takes place in the near future.
How to plant broccoli seeds?
To begin with, pots are prepared, containers in which seeds are planted. It is recommended to use peat pans. The soil should be at least 7 degrees when the seeds are planted. You should adhere to these rules when landing:
- In open ground, the distance between seeds should be at least 45 cm
- If lines are planted, adhere to a distance of 60 cm
- Seeds are buried to a depth of 2.5-3.5 cm
The soil must be moist when planting. This will allow the broccoli to germinate faster, resulting in large buds.
Seedlings are planted in open ground when they have reached 10-15 cm in closed ground. The seedlings should get stronger. You should also pay attention to the weather conditions, since in the cold season it is better to wait with disembarkation. To prevent the plant from dying, it is pre-hardened. To do this, it is enough to expose it periodically for a short time in the sun. You can gradually increase the period of exposure to air. This will allow the broccoli to get used to the sun and temperature changes.
The soil in the containers is thoroughly moistened before planting the seedlings. You should choose the right place for planting in advance, then plant the seedlings there. If the soil is wet, then the seedlings are easily dug out, the roots are not damaged. When planting, abundant watering is not required if the seedlings were grown in peat pots.
Pits are dug on the prepared ground, their depth should be about 10 cm.The soil should be saturated with fertilizers in advance. You should deepen broccoli a few centimeters deeper than they grew indoors.
After planting in the open ground, broccoli care does not stop. The quantity and quality of the crop also depends on it. Care consists in:
- Regular watering
- Loosening the earth
- Top dressing
- Pest treatment
To do this, you should take into account all the secrets of growing. Broccoli grows well at a temperature of 15-25 degrees. The vegetable is not afraid of a strong autumn frost, but its development slows down due to a lack of moisture. The soil should not be allowed to dry out. In dry weather, you need to constantly water. This is required every morning and evening. This rule must be especially heeded. Watering in the heat of the day can damage the leaves.
For the normal development of this plant, loosening of the soil is carried out. This procedure should be repeated once a week. Usual hand-held gardening tools are used for this.
When growing broccoli, you can face a variety of diseases. They appear from a lack of vitamins, improper agricultural technology. Most often, the vegetable attacks peresporosis. It infects leaves that develop yellow spots. They appear due to lack of air, so ventilation is very important for broccoli. To increase air exchange, excess leaves are removed.
If a thin and weak stem is observed in the plants, then there is not enough boron in the soil. Because of this, it is important to feed the land.
You should also be wary of caterpillars, aphids, root flies, snails. These insects are pests for broccoli. The roots rot from the fly larvae. Therefore, you need to carefully monitor the condition of the plant. As soon as the first signs of a pest attack appear, the vegetable should be treated with special solutions.
But caterpillars and snails affect the grown cabbage. They can often be seen on species other than broccoli. To get rid of them, they are collected and destroyed. But sometimes special compounds are used for this, which kill these pests.
So broccoli is a healthy vegetable. But it should be grown carefully, adhering to many rules.
Video about growing conditions for broccoli: