Champignons belong to the lamellar mushrooms of the Agaricaceae family. They grow in the wild in forests, meadows, steppes and even deserts.
- General idea of champignon dvuhporovy
- Cultivation of mushrooms from mycelium on the site
- A simple way to grow mushrooms in the country
General idea of champignon dvuhporovy
Among more than two hundred representatives of these mushrooms, there are toxic and inedible ones. These include:
- champignon california
- yellowing champignon
- scaly champignon
- champignon carbolic
The following types of champignons are eaten:
- large spore
Two-pore and two-ring mushrooms are grown industrially. To grow these mushrooms, a number of special conditions must be observed. And how to grow mushrooms in the country in the summer, to provide the family with tasty and safe mushrooms?
There are three types of double-stemmed champignon:
Creamy mushrooms are not found in the wild, they are grown only in artificial conditions.
The cap of these mushrooms is 2 to 8 cm in diameter, the leg is thick, up to 8 - 10 cm high. The remains of a collar are always visible on it, encircling the leg of the mushroom. The plates are pale pink or light brown.
The choice in favor of the double-peeled champignon for growing in culture was made because its mycelium best of all takes root on an artificial substrate and gives a good harvest of fruit bodies. In addition, this species has excellent taste, it is absolutely safe. The history of mushroom cultivation has been known for a long time; in France it goes back several centuries. With proper cultivation of champignons, you can achieve a yield of more than 10 - 12 kg per sq. meters.
In Russia, where they traditionally gave preference to harvested mushrooms from the wild, attempts to grow mushrooms on farms began to be made only in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
An important point in growing mushrooms is to obtain a sterile mycelium. For industrial production, it is obtained in laboratory conditions, but where can I get mycelium for growing mushrooms in the country?
To grow mushrooms in a summer cottage, first of all, you need planting material - mycelium or mycelium.
The easiest way to get mushroom mushrooms for outdoor cultivation is to find the place where they grow most densely. Most often they settle on well-manured land. In the fall, it is necessary to remove a layer of soil from this place, on which the threads of hyphae will be clearly visible.
The optimal size of one layer is 40 cm by 40 cm and up to 20 cm thick. You can save the removed layers until spring either in the cellar or in the attic of a country house. It is important to keep the temperature low enough and not to allow excess moisture. Harvesting wild mycelium is the simplest and most effective way to obtain planting material. All other methods are quite laborious, requiring special rooms or greenhouses, certain skills. You can also purchase ready-made planting material in special stores.
Cultivation of mushrooms from mycelium on the site
Manure is required to create a bed for champignons. If possible, it is better to prepare horse manure, but cattle manure is also suitable.
For a garden bed for planting mushrooms, the following components are mixed:
- manure, 250 kg
- gypsum, 5 kg
- lime (chalk), 5 kg
- urea, 1 kg
- straw, 5 kg
If it is not possible to use cereal straw, you can use corn tops or dry leaves. Spread the resulting mixture in a layer of 20 cm and leave to ripen for two weeks. Every three to four days, the poured layer is gently mixed and loosened.
Before planting the mycelium, the soil is well moistened. Planting is carried out in a checkerboard pattern, lifting the top layer 3 cm thick and placing pieces of prepared soil with mycelium there, covering it with raised soil from above. A finger-thick hole should be made in it to allow air and moisture to enter. Leave the distance between the holes at 20 - 25 cm.
In two weeks, the mycelium should take root, this will be evidenced by a white bloom under a layer of soil at the landing sites. With a weak growth of the mycelium, the bed must
moisturize. Humidification is carried out from a hand sprayer.
After another 14 days, a white bloom will appear on the surface, it is sprinkled with a loose layer of good garden soil. The first fruiting bodies should appear in three to four days. To grow champignons to dachas from a purchased mycelium, they come in accordance with the instructions or use the method for wild mycelium.
Mushrooms bear fruit best in the shade. Therefore, it is advisable to arrange a bed for them in areas where there is a shadow from plants or buildings.
In general, several mushroom crops can be harvested during the season. If you cannot buy ready-made mycelium or prepare wild mycelium, then you can try to grow mushrooms in the simplest way.
A simple way to grow mushrooms in the country
At the beginning of summer, try to find a place where mushrooms grow in their natural environment. Collect the most mature mushrooms without cutting them off, but twisting them out of the ground, so that a little mycelium and earth would remain on the legs.
Dig a trench at the site, 20-30 cm deep. Fill it with manure mixed with straw. Pour forest or garden soil on top with a layer of 5-6 cm. Moisten everything. Chop the collected mushrooms with a knife and place on the prepared surface. Cover everything with a layer of earth three centimeters. The first mushrooms should appear in four weeks. From time to time, you can leave some of the mushrooms and treat them in the same way as during the first planting.
Many forest mushrooms can be grown in the same way.
Today, you can buy fresh mushrooms on sale without any problems and at a very affordable price, but grown in the country with your own hands, they are much tastier and, most importantly, safer.
Informative video about growing mushrooms at home: