Gooseberry cultivation in Russia has been known since the 11th century. An attempt to replace old Russian varieties with new, European ones led to the fact that at the beginning of the 20th century, along with new varieties, the spheroteka disease was introduced. In the future, the selection was aimed at developing varieties and hybrids resistant to it, as well as improving several other characteristics.
- Which gooseberries to plant in the garden
- Where to plant and in what soil?
- Spring or Autumn?
Which gooseberries to plant in the garden
Breeders in Russia and Europe have been working on the following qualities in recent years:
- the taste of berries and their size
- breeding of thornless or low thorn varieties
- disease resistance
- frost resistance
At the same time, attention was paid to the ripening time, as a result of the work, many new varieties and hybrids appeared, which also differ in the times of harvest:
- early ripening, harvest before 10 July
- medium, picking berries until July 20
- late, berry picking after 20 July
Choosing gooseberries for their garden, as a rule, they prefer large-fruited frost-resistant varieties with a high sugar content in berries. In addition, many pay attention to the color of the berries themselves, they are:
The five most common sweet varieties today include the following:
- The spring, one of the very first berries in terms of ripening. Large-fruited gooseberry with berries weighing up to 8 g, green-yellow. Due to its high sugar content, it is ideal for making compotes and preserves. The spine of the shoots is medium, the frost resistance is excellent. From one bush, you can collect up to 4-5 kg of berries.
- White nights, early gooseberries, with berries weighing up to 7 g, thorns of medium length, located throughout the shoot, yield up to 6 kg per bush. Very resistant to typical gooseberry diseases.
- An elegant, mid-season variety with berries of dark cherry color, weighing 5 g, yield 4 - 5 kg per bush, has thorns only at the bottom of each shoot.
- Delicate - completely thornless variety, late ripening, green berries, average weight 4-5 grams, sweet. from one bush gives up to 6 kilograms of berries.
- Lada, late ripening variety, with red berries weighing up to 10 grams, yield up to 5 kg per bush, shoots with medium spine.
In recent years, many large-fruited varieties with berries weighing up to 18 grams have appeared: "Lemon Giant", "Green Bottle".
Experienced gardeners who already have several varieties strive for novelties, for beginners - it is better to choose time-tested varieties. But in order for the gooseberry to show all the qualities laid down by the breeders, it is important to plant it correctly.
Where to plant and in what soil?
When choosing a site for gooseberries, it is important to take into account that this culture, although frost-resistant, is very afraid of the effects of winter and summer winds. In this case, the berries are crushed, the bush develops slowly, and the death of the plant may occur.
Therefore, it is better to plant on a site protected from the wind, or artificially create wind protection for the cold season. Taller gardens or buildings on the site can become natural protection from the wind. If possible, plant this culture under the protection of a house wall, a fence. In addition, in areas with snowy winters, early cover with a snow cover contributes to a successful wintering of the culture.
In terms of relief, it is better to give preference to a small slope, to avoid low, humid places. Sun illumination is good, at least 8 hours during a summer daylight, but good development is also possible in partial shade.
Gooseberry grows well both on chernozem and loamy soils, and feels good on acidic soils. Preparing the soil before planting is essential.
Preparation of the selected site
Since many varieties are capable of producing crops for 10 - 20 years in one place without reducing yield, it is necessary to take a responsible approach to soil preparation.
First of all, thoroughly clean the area from extraneous roots and rhizomes. Remove weeds, especially wheatgrass. Although this is not an easy business. Throughout the summer, you will have to dig up at least three times and select all of its small and large rhizomes. In severe cases, twice a season, with an interval of 10 days, apply a herbicide against cereal weeds - sodium trichloroacetate. Expect the last application to be three months before planting. Therefore, if we plant in the fall, at the end of September, then the treatment with herbicides must be completed by the end of July.
Apply organic and mineral fertilizers per bush:
- nitrogen 300-400 g
- potash 300 g
- phosphoric 400-500 g
- ash or limestone 300-400 g
- organic compost 10-15 kg
The mineral component can be added to the finished compost in advance, such a mixture must be added 15-16 kg per planting area of one bush, about 1.5 sq.m. After fertilizing, the site is dug up, the digging depth is on the bayonet of the shovel.
Spring or Autumn?
In areas where winters have little snow and strong winds, it is better to plant gooseberries in spring. Where winters are snowy or milder, gooseberries are best planted in the fall. For autumn planting, around the middle of September, we prepare planting pits on pre-selected and prepared lands.
When digging a hole, try to place the upper fertile layer separately from the lower one. The average size of a hole for a one-year-old sapling is 40 cm by 40 cm, if the bush is older, then you need to focus on the size of the root system and dig a hole 60 cm by 60 cm.
The distance between the holes is 1.5 m. The planting hole should be ready two to three weeks before planting.
It is better to choose a seedling with well-developed root shoots, but if they are too long and thin, they must be cut off by about 1/3. Trim the root with a clean garden pruner. You can install the seedling strictly vertically or with an inclination, almost "lying", fill the hole with soil, observing the reverse order. Compact the soil around the seedling. Weak shoots are removed immediately, and healthy ones are shortened after the leaves fall.
Spring planting is best done before the leaves appear. As a rule, this is done from mid-April to mid-May, if the seedling is sold in a container with a closed root system, it is possible later. After planting the seedling, it is good to shed and mulch the soil around it.
After that, dried and damaged parts of the shoots are removed with a garden pruner. Cut healthy shoots by 1/3, leaving up to 5 well-formed buds on each.
When choosing planting material, pay attention to:
- the condition of the root system, well-developed roots should be 15-20 cm long
- ground part, with a shoot height of 30 - 40 cm and an amount from 3 to 5
- age, optimally 2 years, but you can also up to 4 years
In the early years, the gooseberry bush grows and forms rather slowly, sustainable fruiting begins at 3 - 5 years.
- in a dry autumn, shed a bush with a bucket of water in mid-September
- remove all fallen leaves, weed residues
- treat with fungicides
- by mid-October, finish pruning the bush, leaving up to 5-7 of the strongest shoots
- add soil, compost to the root zone
- during the winter, make sure that the gooseberries are sufficiently covered with snow.
In the spring, the frozen parts are cut off, feeding and treatment from the pest and diseases is carried out. It is not for nothing that gooseberries are considered the favorite culture of Russian gardeners; with proper care, it can withstand both severe winters and dry summer periods, delighting with a bountiful harvest.
Video instruction on the correct cultivation of gooseberries: