This onion in Europe is called "shallot", in Ukraine - "kushchevka", in Moldova and Russia - "family", Latin name - Allium ascalonicum. The feathers of this onion are thinner and less sharp compared to other varieties, and they also have a slight waxy coating.
- Growing and care
Growing and care
The cultivation of family onions has its own characteristics. He shoots hard and is not afraid of frost, so he is planted in the ground in mid-April. The "family" manages to get enough of melt water from the soil, and its active growth falls on the longest light days of the year.
If this onion is supposed to be used for greens, then when planting, the distance between the rows is 20 cm, and in each row between the onions - 10 cm. In this case, every third plant is used for greens. If you are not interested in greens, then you should plant them less often, according to the 20x15 scheme.
Caring for family onions is not burdensome, just like other types of onions. It should be watered, loosened and weeded.
The shallots are harvested when 50-70% of its feathers are covered. Pick a sunny day and scoop up the onions along with the feathers. Lay it in one layer and dry for 10-12 days. Then trim off the feathers, leaving a thin neck. Select only healthy bulbs for storage. The family is kept in boxes or boxes at a temperature of 0-3 degrees, without dividing the nests into separate bulbs.
In more detail, cleaning and preparation for storage looks like this. In the second decade of July, watering is stopped completely, even in dry weather. Sevok is harvested after lodging of the leaves, around the end of July. Lodging of leaves is the main sign of bulb maturation, which indicates the dying off of the roots at the bottom. This phase begins at a time when the shallots no longer form leaves and begins to form closed juicy scales inside the bulbs.
A delay in harvesting shallots can lead to a decrease in keeping quality, because after the feathers completely dry out in the presence of soil moisture, root development begins again. Dry, windy weather is considered a good harvesting time, which makes it possible to dry the shallots in the open air. Drying in sunny areas helps to decontaminate the bulbs.
The onions are dried for 2 weeks under a shed or in a shed. Bulbs to be stored should have thin, dry necks. The tops are either wiped off or cut off.
The quality of the bulbs is affected by the fertilization. So, when fresh organic fertilizers are applied, shallots form massive feathers and loose, unsuitable for storage bulbs. Therefore, a three-year manure is more suitable for fertilizers. In the year of sowing, poor soils have to be fertilized; here it is better to use decomposed rotted compost.
Wet humus-sandy or light humus loams are considered the best soils for shallots. Shallot works especially well on alluvial silty soils in warm river valleys.
If family onions are grown for a long time without renewing the planting material, infection accumulates in it, bulbs sick with gray rot are more common, the harvest is poorly preserved. After 3-4 years, you should either buy planting material, or grow it from seeds.
To prevent the accumulation of infections and pests of shallots, crop rotation is used, as well as the combination of crops on the same bed. So, in order to avoid the massive spread of onion flies, it is recommended to plant carrots in the same bed with shallots. At the same time, both crops protect each other well, but carrots are more "responsible" defenders, since onion flies are almost never found in the combined beds, while carrot flies still appear in small quantities.
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For reproduction of shallots, seeds and bulbs are used (vegetatively). For the vegetative method, the soil is prepared in the fall, then in the early spring they begin to plant the sorted bulbs. Before planting, the bulbs can be held in warm (about 30 degrees) water.
Seeds are sown in early May in 3 cm deep grooves. The seeds are pre-soaked for two days, and after sowing, the grooves are sprinkled with peat or rotted compost.
The seeds are soaked in a gauze bag placed in a plate and filled with water with a layer of 0.5 cm. The plate is closed on top so that the gauze does not dry out. Temperature regime - room temperature, 22-25 degrees. Every 8 hours, the gauze with seeds is washed in running water, the water in the plate is replaced and covered again. Before planting, the seeds are slightly dried to flowability and sown on the garden bed.
With its exquisite taste, quick preparation and almost no smell after eating, shallots have become a real boon for gourmets. And as you can see, the care and cultivation of the "family" does not present any difficulties at all.