tree of large size originating from Europe. These plants have slow growth and are very long-lived; they have a powerful stem, very branched, with rounded, pyramidal or disordered foliage; the bark is dark, deeply fissured in the specimens of some years of age. The leaves are lobed, cuoiose, dark green, shiny, become bronze in autumn, before falling. Over the years they become majestic specimens, although bonsaists often prefer to grow small oaks keeping them small in size. In general, these plants are quite difficult to cultivate and are not recommended for beginners, since pruning must be done very carefully and it is not always easy to obtain small sized leaves.
oaks are pruned in autumn or late winter, avoiding too drasitic interventions, which could cause excessive stress to the plant; during the vegetative period the buds are cut, leaving a couple of small leaves. Defoliation, total or partial, is not recommended, since it tends to produce large leaves.
Exposure, watering and soil
Exposure: place in a sunny place, remembering to move the plant in partial shade during the hottest months of the year. The young specimens, or with very small containers, need a root protection in the months with cold temperatures.
Watering: from March to October water regularly, leaving the soil to dry between one watering and another. During the vegetative period, provide fertilizer for green plants, every 15-20 days, using a half-dose compared to that recommended on the package.
Soil: the oaks need a light and rich soil, very well drained; it is prepared by mixing a part of peat, a part of clay and a part of sand; it is advisable to repot every 2-3 years, as the plants grow very slowly.
Oak, Farnia - Quercus: Multiplication and diseases
Multiplication: usually takes place by seed, in autumn; if you want to sow in spring it is advisable to leave the seeds for at least 10-15 days in the refrigerator, to simulate the winter season. In general, given the slowness in development, we tend to take specimens suitable for bonsai cultivation directly in nature.
Pests and diseases: young oak trees tend to get sick very frequently with oidium, especially if they are in a place with poor ventilation.