Plants are living organisms, as such they live by transforming into energy what nature gives them; energy is obtained from plants thanks to chlorophyll photosynthesis, which uses sunlight; in order to develop their cells, plants acquire a lot of nutrients from the soil, which are absorbed by the roots. These elements are mainly water, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; many other nutritional elements are acquired in minor part, such as iron, manganese, magnesium and other mineral salts, which are in fact present only in traces in the soil.
In a well-balanced ecosystem the plants take from the soil minerals that will later be released back into the substrate, in fact the decomposing leaves, the fruits not consumed by the animals, branches and bark fallen to the ground, decomposing give back to the soil the mineral salts they had taken . So in an ecosystem like a forest in general, the soil remains constantly fertile, even with the passage of time.
In a garden, however, grass is commonly cut and mowing is removed from the turf; the leaves fallen from the trees are removed from the ground and so are the fruits; in the flowerbeds we plant small plants that at the end of their life cycle will be uprooted to make room for other essences; in this way with the passage of time we tend to impoverish the soil of the mineral elements that are commonly present there. For this reason, if we want to have a luxuriant and healthy garden, we must provide fertilization, to restore the minerals that are removed from the plants we grow to the substrate.
The plants grown in the open ground have a large area in which to enlarge the roots, in search of water, but also of the mineral salts they need. Plants grown in pots instead are forced to settle for what they find in the small portion of soil present in the container; the soil in a vase, however rich it may be, naturally tends to become impoverished.
Naturally the plants need greater fertilization when they have a more luxuriant development, as in spring; while they may need no mineral salts during the months of vegetative rest.
In the case of garden or terrazzo plants, we tend to fertilize regularly during spring and summer, using liquid fertilizers, to be dissolved in the water used for watering; while fertilizing with organic fertilizer in autumn, so that this fertilizer releases the mineral salts in the soil during the resting period of the plants, which they can use in the spring, as soon as they start to develop again.
This type of fertilizer is very suitable for the garden, the garden or the terrace; in the case of houseplants it is advisable to avoid autumn or winter fertilizations, since the presence of many mineral salts in the soil could force these plants to over-develop during the winter months, without allowing normal vegetative rest.
Nitrogen is one of the most widespread mineral salts in products used as fertilizers; in fact it is useful to plants in the production of new leaf tissues, therefore it is one of the most important fertilizers to supply to green plants, and also to all plants during the spring months.
Phosphorus, on the other hand, is a mineral salt useful especially during flowering periods, therefore we prefer a fertilizer with a high phosphorus content during these times of the year.
Potassium is instead useful during flowering, but especially during the production period of fruits and berries, and to favor the presence of sugar; potassium-rich fertilizers are widely used in the garden.
We remind you that fertilization is useful for restoring the right level of mineral salts in the garden, garden and pots soil; however, we remind you that these mineral salts are not necessary to the plants throughout the year, and moreover not necessarily more mineral salts lead to a better development of our plants; It is always good to be guided by the principle that excesses are harmful: a scarcity of minerals leads to diseased and poorly developed plants, but also an excess of mineral salts leads to plants with development problems.
So we always try to use fertilizer in the doses indicated on the products we buy, avoiding excess; moreover we avoid the fertilizations during the months in which the plants are in vegetative rest.
Furthermore, an excess of mineral salts, especially nitrogenous salts, leads directly to the pollution of the aquifers, given that from the ground these salts, due to the rain run-off, end up directly in the water, and from there to rivers, lakes and seas. Certainly greater impact is given to agricultural fertilizers, where hundreds of kilos of fertilizer are dispersed over acres of land; but remember that it is good to maintain the right behavior even in small gardens or on terraces.