Genus that counts about twenty species of perennial herbaceous plants, which develop large roundish tubers, originating from the Mediterranean area; they are widespread in most parts of the globe as apartment and garden plants, ideal for shaded flower beds. The tubers are buried at a depth equal to their radius. The leaves are roundish, slightly fleshy, carried by a long petiole; they are dark green, often marked by a showy silvery-green zoning. The flowers appear in groups, at the center of the leaves, from which they rise a few centimeters; they are of various colors, in shades of pink and red, with varieties also in two colors. They have petals turned upwards, which give the cyclamen flowers a particular and unmistakable shape. Cyclamen flowering lasts a few weeks, from September to spring.
The cyclamen is a plant native to Europe and Asia (but there are also species originating from Africa) and belongs to the family of Primulaceae and includes about 15 species. In Italy c. Spontaneously grow in the woods neapolitanum, the repandum and the europaeum. The flower was already known in antiquity by the Romans and the Greeks who cultivated it in their gardens, but gave them other names. The current name derives from the Greek "kuklos" which means "circular" and perhaps refers to the shape of the bulb. The cyclamen that we normally find on the market, instead, usually comes from the cyclamen persicum, of oriental origin. It was introduced in Europe in the 1600s and is today one of the most common pot plants. They began to cultivate it and select it in England, but then they also became fond of it in France and Germany to the point that already at the beginning of the 1900s cultivars with a double flower or with fringed petals had been produced. They then went in search of dwarf and fragrant cultivars, even if, in the latter case, with little success.
Some nurserymen have also researched the leaves to obtain particular colors and shapes.
|Family and species|
Primulaceae, comprising about 15 species
|Exposure||Half shade, shadow|
|Resistance to cold||The persicum no, many others yes|
|Ground||Forest, acid or basic depending on the species|
|Flowering||Some at the end of winter, others in autumn|
|colors||White, pink, red, purple, salmon|
|Height||from 10 to 35 cm|
|Type of plant||bulbous|
|Irrigation||Normal, fears stagnation|
|Cultivation||From easy to medium difficult|
Rustic cyclamens grow well outdoors in a shady or partially shaded position. They generally have smaller leaves than apartment ones. The tubers are planted in late spring or late summer, at a depth of 3 or 4 centimeters in soils rich in organic substance, to which must be added leaves of beech and sand, capable of retaining humidity, but at the same time permeable to excess water. We periodically water the soil, but only when it is dry. After flowering, with the arrival of spring, the foliage withers and the plants enter in vegetative rest; avoid watering them at this time of year. If we wish it when the tubers are dormant we can dig them up to move them.
How to cure cyclamens
In this paragraph we will talk in particular of the cyclamen persicum that is the one sold in shops from the autumn to the beginning of spring and how to cure it. It is certainly the most common. The root is a black oval bulb from the leaves and stems almost branch off. The leaves are heart-shaped and are medium green with white veins at times. The flower is formed by five petals that rise upwards. When flowering comes to an end the plant produces fruits in the shape of a round capsule. Inside are the seeds, numerous and very small. Being a plant alive and important, you can find many colors and variegations. Furthermore, there are smooth, fringed and even wavy petals.
CALENDAR OF WORKS
|January February March||Flowering, irrigation, fertilization, cleaning|
|May, June, July, August, September||Rest, repotting, division, sowing|
|November December||Early flowering in early species|