In tree crops, the annual development shows implementation differences depending on whether they are deciduous or evergreen species. The annual cycle of deciduous or deciduous trees is characterized by a phase of vegetative development (vegetative period) characterized by a marked growth activity of all plant organs, alternated with a period of rest (winter quiescence) called vegetative stasis. The vegetative period begins in spring and lasts until the natural loss of the leaves. This period is composed of 2 phases: a phase of VEGETATIVE ACTIVITY more or less intense, interposed to a REPRODUCTIVE phase that concerns the formation and development of the buds containing the floral primordial. Recall that the reproductive phase is present only in plants that have reached the MATURITY STAGE.
The winter rest or quiescence period begins with the fall of the leaves, and remains throughout the winter, to end with the start of the vegetative activity.
The SEMPER PREVERDI species do not have the vegetative rest phase: on the contrary, they show an annual cycle consisting of the discontinuous vegetative period. Some organs of the plant, both deciduous and evergreen, have a DEFINED DEVELOPMENT or, in the course of the year, are born, grow and detach from the tree such as, for example, leaves and fruits. Other organs (buds, branches, branches, trunk and root system) instead have INDEFINITE DEVELOPMENT then develop annually throughout the life cycle of the plant. Plant development of any species depends on the interaction of environmental factors with endogenous mechanisms. Among the environmental factors, the most important are: water and nutrient availability, photoperiodism and tempoperiodismo. Among the endogenous (internal) factors, the GROWTH REGULATORS or VEGETABLE HORMONS called, more properly, ENDOGENOUS PHYTOREGULATORS are important.
Also the fruit plants, obviously, have an annual cycle that derives from the genus to which they belong. For a good cultivation it is essential to know what are the cultivation needs of the plant and what are its growth phases; if a fruiting plant has deciduous leaves, it is good to know that it needs a winter rest period. In some cases, due to the varieties of fruit that are grown in temperate climates, it may be necessary to provide a special protection for the canopy and the root system with specific mulching materials, if the winter temperatures are rather harsh. It should also be remembered that many varieties of fruit, when they bear fruit, already have a germination dedicated to the preparation of the plant for the following year, so all the nutritional elements necessary for the best development must be supplied.
Annual cycle of fruit plants: Annual cycles
It is good to know that each annual cycle depends on the previous one and influences the next one; if the production of fruits is abundant and the plant is found in a soil that is not rich in nourishment, it is probable that the germination for the following year will be scarce, with a consequent limited harvest. In order to get the best from your plant it is essential to know its needs and intervene with targeted operations in order to guarantee the best environmental conditions. Each annual cycle is linked to the previous and subsequent cycles, so it is essential to verify that all the requirements regarding exposure, soil and fertilization are satisfied, to maintain a correct balance between the different vegetative phases, so that no imbalances are created .