Fruit and Vegetables

Pero - Pyrus communis


Generalitа


Plant of ancient origins coming from Asia, present in the world in various species, even if the cultivated ones are little more than two or three.
Pero lives well in temperate climates, in our country it adapts well to any region, preferring the earliest varieties in the hottest areas. It has no special soil requirements, in any case it fears drought and poorly draining soils where water stagnation is possible. In adulthood the plant, if left to grow naturally, can reach, according to the
used rootstock, even 15 m in height)
with conical or roundish crown.
The leaves are oval, bright green in the upper part, lighter in the lower part.
The flowers are generally white with five petals.
The shape of the fruit varies from roundish to elongated according to the variety, as well as the color ranging from green, yellow, red and rust.

Rootstock



The currently most used rootstock is the Cotogno.
Quince is preferred because it gives a reduced growth to the plant and also brings it to an early and abundant fruiting, producing excellent quality fruits.
It fears calcareous and drought soils with consequent yellowing of the leaves and also presents disaffinity with some very well known varieties such as "WILLIAM" and "KAISER".
Other very popular rootstocks are the "Franco" and the "Selvatico".
The Franco seedlings are obtained from the seed of a cultivated pear tree, while the Wild is a seedling born spontaneously.
Both these subjects, among other things very similar, make the plant very vigorous, of great development and more long-lived, moreover they have a very solid and deep root system, therefore they resist well even in case of long dry periods.
They do not show any disaffinity with any variety of pear, but come into production late,
(about four-six years), producing slightly lower quality fruits compared to those obtained from plants grafted onto Cotogno.

Composting



As with many other plants, fertilization is also recommended for the pear tree, possibly made every year, with well-mature manure or other organic origin fertilizers, supplementing them with complex chemical fertilizers based on nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and microelements, using more percentages. high in nitrogen and phosphorus in spring to favor plant development both in the aerial part and in the root and with higher percentages of the other elements during the summer until September to favor the putting to fruit, remembering that the potassium has a marked influence on fruit coloration.

Illnesses



As far as animal parasites are concerned, the presence of aphids and cochineals is known, attacks of yellow Psilla (Psyilla piricola) are also possible, a sucking insect that prickling on the youngest tissues of the plant, with consequent leakage of honeydew, favors the development of mushrooms like the fumaggine. Other fungal diseases that attack the pear are the scab which is widespread and the white mal. It is important to point out that the pear tree may be subject to the fire blow, a disease of bacterial origin that affects all the hair and the trunk indistinctly, dissecting them rapidly.

To sapling


For the formation of a tree-like pear tree, it is necessary to plant a sucker, which must be immediately cut to a height that can vary from 120 to 170 cm above the ground. From here, during the first year, other branches will be issued. At the beginning of the second year at least three of these branches will have to be preserved by shortening them to twenty centimeters which, in the course of the vegetative season, will in turn emit other branches. At the beginning of the third, the latter will also have to be cut to twenty cm, so doing this will be given a solid supporting structure for the foliage.

A melted



For the formation of a spindle a sucker will be planted which will instead be cut at a height of about 50 cm from the ground. In this way, during the first year of growth, four or five side branches will be obtained which, at the beginning of the second year, (it is recommended the month of March) will only be checked by giving the plant a pyramid shape

Pero: Vertical cordon


To form the vertical cordon you will plant a sucker and cut it even at 50 cm, making sure that the cut is made just above a bud, so as to obtain a vertical arrow. The branches that, during the first year, will grow laterally, will have to be cut very short (about four to five cm from the stem) and also the apical part will be checked at a suitable height. This operation must be practiced from year to year always shortening the new vegetation near the trunk giving the plant a columnar shape.